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This chapter gathers together the various threads discussed in previous chapters. It argues that the intelligence apparatus that evolved during the Emergency was not a single-dimensional entity focused solely or even predominantly upon Special Branch. Nor did it the apparatus evolve in a linear or whiggish manner. It took the best part of seven years of trial and error to reach a degree of structural maturity. The chapter also considers the implications of these finding. It argues that potentially British and American efforts in contemporary campaigns against terror may have struggled in part because they were based on previous, infirm, assessments of how intelligence was managed in Malaya. This suggests a more systematic review of current counterinsurgency doctrine is required.