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This chapter presents the immediate and longer-term objectives of the Zapatero government (2004–2011). The PSOE reasoned that one could no longer rely exclusively on unilateral measures, Cold War alliances or a “Spain first” approach. It is against this background that the new government developed a new strategic concept called “effective multilateralism” or “multilateralismo eficaz.” This new approach not only foresaw increased collaboration with several of the world’s emerging powers. It envisaged that Spain would work alongside different players of international politics, big and small, and in regions where Spain did not traditionally have a strong foothold.