Criteria for Motivational Technology-Enhanced Language Learning Activities

  • Pinelopi KrystalliEmail author
  • Panagiotis Panagiotidis
  • Panagiotis Arvanitis
Part of the New Language Learning and Teaching Environments book series (NLLTE)


One challenge for educators is to find the most appropriate way to use and exploit Web 2.0 tools and services in order to enhance learner motivation and help learners engage in the learning process as well as overcome problems of lower self-esteem. This chapter proposes key criteria to draw links between technologies, motivation and engagement to learn a foreign language. To this end, based on three motivational models and inspired by gamification, we have compiled a list of 15 criteria for teachers to consider when designing online activities. The criteria were ranked according to their significance by 72 students from a French department at a large Greek university. The criteria are classified according to students’ perceptions and can be applied in the language learning classroom.


  1. Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Davis, A., Freeman, A., Hall Giesinger, C., & Ananthanarayanan, V. (2017). NMC horizon report: 2017 higher education edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.
  2. Alamer, A. (2015). The role of EFL learners’ motivation in mobile language learning. In M. Dollard (ed.) Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice (ICTP-2015), (pp. 142–153). Adelaida, Australia: APIAR. ISBN: 978 0 994365651.’_MOTIVATION_IN_MOBILE_LANGUAGE_LEARNING/links/56a3a29a08ae232fb20582b7/THE-ROLE-OF-EFL-LEARNERS-MOTIVATION-IN-MOBILE-LANGUAGE-LEARNING.pdf
  3. Arvanitis, P. (2011). A framework of learners’ digital skills needed for use in language learning environments. Online Proceedings of 5th International Symposium: Emerging Technologies for Online Learning (ET4Online). Las Vegas (Nevada) 25-27/07/2012. USA: Las Vegas, Sloan Consortium & MERLOT.
  4. Atkinson, E. S. (2000). An investigation into the relationship between teacher motivation and pupil motivation. Educational Psychology, 20(1). 45–57.
  5. Barbot, M. J., & Camatarri, G. (1999). Autonomie et apprentissage. Paris: Puf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40, 21–40. Scholar
  7. Bourgeois, E., & Galand, B. (2006). La question de la motivation à apprendre. In B. Galand & E. Bourgeois (Eds.), (Se) Motiver à apprendre (pp. 11–12). Paris: PUF.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education. Harvard University Press: London, England.
  9. Burston, J. (2013). Mobile-assisted language learning: A selected annotated bibliography of implementation studies 1994–2012. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 157–225.
  10. Chang, M. M., & Lehman, J. D. (2002). Learning foreign language through an interactive multimedia program: An experimental study on the effects of the relevance component of the ARCS model. CALICO Journal, 20(1), 81–98.
  11. Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge, UK: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  12. Cuq, J.-P., & Gruca, I. (2005). Cours de didactique du français langue étrangère et seconde. Grenoble: PUG.Google Scholar
  13. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). New themes and approaches in second language motivation research. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 43–59.
  14. Dörnyei, Z. (2002). The motivational basis of language learning tasks. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning, (pp. 137–158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Reprinted in: K. Van den Branden, M. Bygate, J. M. Norris (Eds.), Task-based language teaching: A reader (pp. 357–377). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  15. Freiermuth, M. (2002). Internet chat: Collaborating and learning via E-conversations. TESOL Journal, 11, 36–40.Google Scholar
  16. Freiermuth, M. R., & Huang, H. C. (2012). Bringing Japan and Taiwan closer electronically: A look at an intercultural online synchronic chat task and its effect on motivation. Language Teaching Research, 16(1), 61–88.
  17. Gagné, M., & Deci, E. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. In Simulation and Gaming, 33, 441–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy? New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2333–2351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Golonka, E., Bowles, A., Frank, V., Richardson, D., & Freynik, S. (2014). Technologies for foreign language learning: A review of technology types and their effectiveness. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 27(1), 70–105. Scholar
  22. Huang, C. S., Yang, S. J., Chiang, T. H., & Su, A. Y. (2016). Effects of situated mobile learning approach on learning motivation and performance of EFL students. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(1), 263–276.
  23. Karsenti, T., & Fievez, A. (2013). L’iPad à l’école: usages, avantages et défs: résultats d’une enquête auprès de 6057 élèves et 302 enseignants du Québec (Canada). Montréal, QC: CRIFPE.Google Scholar
  24. Keller, M. J. (2010). Five fundamental requirements for motivation and volition in technology-assisted distributed learning environments. In Inter-Ação, Goiânia, 35(2), 305–321. Scholar
  25. Keller, M. J., & Suzuki, K. (2004). Learner motivation and E-learning design: A multinationally validated process. ΙnJournal of Educational Media, 29(3), 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. King, J. (2002). Using DVD feature films in the EFL classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 15(5), 509–523.,%20J.King.pdf
  27. Krystalli, P. (2015). Using Educational Online Games to Develop Linguistic Competences in Foreign Language Learning. In Proceedings of INTED2015 Conference (pp. 5338–5346). Madrid, Spain: INTED. ISBN: 978-84-606-5763-7.
  28. Krystalli, P., & Arvanitis, P. (2018). Self-assessment and immediate feedback in language learning. In Proceedings of 11th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, (ICERI 2018) (pp. 2066–2072). Seville, Spain: IATED. ISBN: 978-84-09-05948-5.
  29. Lafaye, S. (2009). De l’importance de la compréhension des consignes base de la construction des apprentissages. In GEP Élèves en difficulté: Rôle des consignes dans le processus d’apprentissage.
  30. Lai, C., & Gu, M. (2011). Self-regulated out-of-class language learning with technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(4), 317–335.
  31. Lamb, T. (2004). Learning independently? Pedagogical and methodological implications of new learning environments. Keynote speech at the inaugural conference of the Independent Learning Association, University of Melbourne, Australia.
  32. Leontiev, D. (1998). Motivation through personal sense: Activity theory perspective. In P. Nenniger, S. R. Jager, A. Frey, & M. Wosnitza (Eds.), Advances in Motivation. Vertrag Emprisiche Padagogik: Landaou.Google Scholar
  33. Lucas, M., & Moreira, A. (2009). Bridging formal and informal learning – A case study on students’ perceptions of the use of social networking tools. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova, & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the synergy of multiple disciplines (pp. 325–337). Germany: Springer. Scholar
  34. Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? A study of intrinsically motivating computer games. Palo Alto, CA: Xerox.t.Google Scholar
  35. Malone, T. W., & Lepper, M. R. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In R. E. Snow & M. J. Farr (Eds.), Aptitude, learning and instruction III: Conative and affective process analyses. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. (2008a). Mapping the digital terrain: New media and social software as catalysts for pedagogical change. In A. Farley, & D. Holt (Eds.), Proceedings of ASCILITE 2008 (pp. 641–652). Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
  37. McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. (2008b). The three p’s of pedagogy for the networked society: Personalization, participation, and productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(1), 10–27. Retrieved from
  38. Nevid, J. (2013). Psychology: Concepts and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadworth.Google Scholar
  39. Porcher, L. (2004). L’enseignement des langues étrangères. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  40. Prensky, M. (2007). Digital game-based learning. Minnesota: Paragon House St. Paul.Google Scholar
  41. Ryan, M. R., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. In Contemporary educational psychology, 25, 54–67.
  42. Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. MotivEmot, 30, 347–363. Scholar
  43. Sailer, M., Hense, U. J., Mayr, S., & Heinz, M. (2017). How gamification motivates: An experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 371–380. Scholar
  44. Song, D., & Bonk, C. J. (2016). Motivational factors in self-directed informal learning from online learning resources. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1205838.
  45. Tardif, C. (1992). Pratiques pédagogiques facilitant l’autonomie de l’apprenant en français langue seconde. Cahiers Franco-Canadiens de l’Ouest, 4(1), 89–102.Google Scholar
  46. Torii-Williams, E. (2004). Incorporating the use of e-mail into a language program. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17(1), 109–122.
  47. Ushida, E. (2005). The role of students’ attitudes and motivation in second language learning in online language courses. CALICO Journal, 23(1), 49–78.
  48. Ushioda, E. (2011). Language learning motivation, self and identity: Current theoretical perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 199–210.
  49. Viau, R. (2009). La motivation en contexte scolaire. Bruxelles: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  50. Wehner, A. K., Gump, A. W., & Downey, S. (2011). The effects of second life on the motivation of undergraduate students learning a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(3), 277–289.
  51. Weinberg, L. (2017). Motivation, technology and language learning. In R. Breeze, & C. Sancho Guinda (Eds.), Essential competencies for english-medium university teaching (pp. 295–307). Cham: Springer.
  52. Woodrow, L. (2017). Motivation in language learning. In R. Breeze, & C. Sancho Guinda (Eds.), Essential competencies for english- medium university teaching, educational linguistics 27, (pp. 235–248), Springer, Cham.
  53. Yang, Y. T. C., & Wu, W. C. I. (2012). Digital storytelling for enhancing student academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation: A year-long experimental study. Computers & education, 59(2), 339–352.
  54. Yu-lin, C. (2015). The impact of technology-integrated instruction to elementary students’ language learning motivation and performance. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, 5(8), 679–685.
  55. Zimmerman, S., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (2000). Des apprenants autonomes. Paris: De Boeck.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pinelopi Krystalli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Panagiotis Panagiotidis
    • 1
  • Panagiotis Arvanitis
    • 1
  1. 1.Aristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations