• Iain L. C. ChappleEmail author


The world’s population is ageing, and with that brings a significant burden from chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to individuals and the healthcare economy. Ageing is a process is that is, in part, genetically determined, but one that can be modified by lifestyle factors and the environment in which individuals find or place themselves. Therefore, individuals can make health and lifestyle choices, but professional advice on those choices requires precise data that pertains to that individual, rather than being based on population norms; hence, the emergence of personalised and precision medicine in twenty-first century healthcare.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Dentistry, Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical and Dental SciencesThe University of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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