Risk Assessment for Behaviour Change

  • Koula AsimakopoulouEmail author


Behaviour change as the result of risk assessment is a fairly new area in medicine and dentistry. The chapter provides theoretical and practical applications of risk assessment research in medical and oral health settings, concluding with work that shows how risk assessment can be used chairside to bring about behaviour change in patients with signs of periodontal disease.


  1. 1.
    Berry DC. Risk, communication and health psychology. London: McGraw Hill; 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed H, et al. Communicating risk, vol. 344. 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scambler S, Scott S, Asimakopoulou K, editors. Sociology and psychology for the dental team. London: Polity; 2016.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    GDC. General Dental Council Standard Guidance. London: GDC; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Garcia RI, Nunn ME, Dietrich T. Risk calculation and periodontal outcomes. Periodontology 2000. 2009;50:65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kardas P, Lewek P, Matyjaszczyk M. Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews. Front Pharmacol. 2013;4:91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al Shammary NH, et al. How is adult patient adherence recorded in orthodontists’ clinical notes? A mixed-method case-note study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2017;11:1807–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gigerenzer G, et al. Helping doctors and patients make sense of health statistics. Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2007;8(2):53–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yamagishi K. When a 12.86% mortality is more dangerous than 24.14%: implications for risk communication. Appl Cogn Psychol. 1997;11(6):495–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gigerenzer G. Calculated risks: how to know when numbers deceive you. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2002.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lipkus IM, Samsa G, Rimer BK. General performance on a numeracy scale among highly educated samples. Med Decis Making. 2001;21(1):37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoffrage U, Gigerenzer G. Using natural frequencies to improve diagnostic inferences. 2007(1040-2446 (Print)).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asimakopoulou KG, Hampson SE. Biases in self-reports of self-care behaviours in type 2 diabetes. Psychol Health Med. 2005;10(3):305–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Asimakopoulou K. Risk communication in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Prim Care. 2007;9(4):210–4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Asimakopoulou K, Speight J, Skinner T. First do no harm: a response to Louise Ansari, Diabetes UK. BMJ (Online). 2014;348Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lanning SK, et al. Variation in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among clinical instructors. J Dent Educ. 2005;69(3):325–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thyvalikakath T, Song M, Schleyer T. Perceptions and attitudes toward performing risk assessment for periodontal disease: a focus group exploration. BMC Oral Health. 2018;18(1):90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosenstock IM. The health belief model: explaining health behavior through expectancies. In: Glanz K, Lewis FM, Rimer BK, editors. Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1990. p. 39–62.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conner M, Norman P. Predicting health behaviour. London: Open University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones CJ, Smith H, Llewellyn C. Evaluating the effectiveness of health belief model interventions in improving adherence: a systematic review. Health Psychol Rev. 2013:1–17.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kegeles SS. Why people seek dental care: a test of a conceptual formulation. J Health Hum Behav. 1963;4:166–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chen M, Land KC. Testing the health belief model: LISREL analysis of alternative models of causal relationships between health beliefs and preventive dental behavior. Soc Psychol Q. 1986;49(1):45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rogers RW. Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: a revised theory of protection motivation. In: Cacioppo J, Petty R, editors. Social psychophysiology. New York: Guildford Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paling J. Strategies to help patients understand risks. BMJ. 2003;327(7417):745–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Asimakopoulou K, et al. The effects of providing periodontal disease risk information on psychological outcomes - a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2015;42(4):350–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Page RC, et al. Validity and accuracy of a risk calculator in predicting periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002;133(5):569–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Page RC, et al. Longitudinal validation of a risk calculator for periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2003;30(9):819–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Asimakopoulou K, et al. The effect of risk communication on periodontal treatment outcomes; a randomized controlled trial. J Periodontol. 2019;90(9):948–56. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.King’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations