Physical Therapy for Pain Management

  • Jason ZafereoEmail author


The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most common, evidence-based techniques and approaches used by physical therapists to evaluate and treat patients with pain. The first section on evaluation includes examination techniques, prognosis, and patient diagnosis/classification. The second section on treatment presents management strategies linked to a pain mechanism classification scheme of nociceptive, neuropathic, or nociplastic pain. Specific recommendations from clinical practice guidelines are included for the physical therapy management of spinal pain, lower extremity osteoarthritis, radiculopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and complex regional pain syndrome, type I.


Physical therapy Pain rehabilitation Exercise Manual therapy Education Modalities Mechanism-based classification Evidence-based practice 


  1. 1.
    Burge E, Monnin D, Berchtold A, Allet L. Cost-effectiveness of physical therapy only and of usual care for various health conditions: systematic review. Phys Ther. 2016;96(6):774–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Horn ME, Fritz JM. Timing of physical therapy consultation on 1-year healthcare utilization and costs in patients seeking care for neck pain: a retrospective cohort. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(1):887.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu X, Hanney WJ, Masaracchio M, Kolber MJ, Zhao M, Spaulding AC, et al. Immediate physical therapy initiation in patients with acute low back pain is associated with a reduction in downstream health care utilization and costs. Phys Ther. 2018;98(5):336–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fritz JM, King JB, McAdams-Marx C. Associations between early care decisions and the risk for long-term opioid use for patients with low back pain with a new physician consultation and initiation of opioid therapy. Clin J Pain. 2018;34(6):552–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun E, Moshfegh J, Rishel CA, Cook CE, Goode AP, George SZ. Association of early physical therapy with long-term opioid use among opioid-naive patients with musculoskeletal pain. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(8):e185909.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smart KM, Blake C, Staines A, Thacker M, Doody C. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 1 of 3: symptoms and signs of central sensitisation in patients with low back (+/− leg) pain. Man Ther. 2012;17(4):336–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smart KM, Blake C, Staines A, Thacker M, Doody C. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 2 of 3: symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathic pain in patients with low back (+/− leg) pain. Man Ther. 2012;17(4):345–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smart KM, Blake C, Staines A, Thacker M, Doody C. Mechanisms-based classifications of musculoskeletal pain: part 3 of 3: symptoms and signs of nociceptive pain in patients with low back (+/− leg) pain. Man Ther. 2012;17(4):352–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gajdosik RL, Bohannon RW. Clinical measurement of range of motion. Review of goniometry emphasizing reliability and validity. Phys Ther. 1987;67(12):1867–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McKenzie R, May S. The lumbar spine: mechanical diagnosis and therapy. 2nd ed. Waikanae: Spinal Publications; 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W. A prospective study of centralization of lumbar and referred pain. A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(10):1115–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fritz JM, Delitto A, Vignovic M, Busse RG. Interrater reliability of judgments of the centralization phenomenon and status change during movement testing in patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(1):57–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Werneke M, Hart DL. Centralization phenomenon as a prognostic factor for chronic low back pain and disability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26(7):758–64; discussion 765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fritz JM, Whitman JM, Childs JD. Lumbar spine segmental mobility assessment: an examination of validity for determining intervention strategies in patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(9):1745–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stochkendahl MJ, Christensen HW, Hartvigsen J, Vach W, Haas M, Hestbaek L, et al. Manual examination of the spine: a systematic critical literature review of reproducibility. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2006;29(6):475–85, 485.e1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landel R, Kulig K, Fredericson M, Li B, Powers CM. Intertester reliability and validity of motion assessments during lumbar spine accessory motion testing. Phys Ther. 2008;88(1):43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cuthbert SC, Goodheart GJ Jr. On the reliability and validity of manual muscle testing: a literature review. Chiropr Osteopat. 2007;15:4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bozic PR, Pazin NR, Berjan BB, Planic NM, Cuk ID. Evaluation of the field tests of flexibility of the lower extremity: reliability and the concurrent and factorial validity. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(9):2523–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Bogduk N. Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(1):80–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ratter J, Radlinger L, Lucas C. Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review. J Physiother. 2014;60(3):144–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shacklock M. Clinical neurodynamics: a new system of neuromusculoskeletal treatment. Edinburgh, New York: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cruz-Almeida Y, Fillingim RB. Can quantitative sensory testing move us closer to mechanism-based pain management? Pain Med. 2014;15(1):61–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Uddin Z, MacDermid JC. Quantitative sensory testing in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain Med. 2016;17(9):1694–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martinez-Calderon J, Zamora-Campos C, Navarro-Ledesma S, Luque-Suarez A. The role of self-efficacy on the prognosis of chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. J Pain. 2018;19(1):10–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okifuji A, Hare BD. The association between chronic pain and obesity. J Pain Res. 2015;8:399–408.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blagestad T, Pallesen S, Gronli J, Tang NK, Nordhus IH. How perceived pain influence sleep and mood more than the reverse: a novel, exploratory study with patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1689.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dunn KM, Jordan KP, Croft PR. Contributions of prognostic factors for poor outcome in primary care low back pain patients. Eur J Pain. 2011;15(3):313–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harrisson SA, Stynes S, Dunn KM, Foster NE, Konstantinou K. Neuropathic pain in low back-related leg pain patients: what is the evidence of prevalence, characteristics, and prognosis in primary care? A systematic review of the literature. J Pain. 2017;18(11):1295–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bean DJ, Johnson MH, Kydd RR. Relationships between psychological factors, pain, and disability in complex regional pain syndrome and low back pain. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(8):647–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meeus M, Nijs J, Van Mol E, Truijen S, De Meirleir K. Role of psychological aspects in both chronic pain and in daily functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective longitudinal study. Clin Rheumatol. 2012;31(6):921–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Scott EL, Kroenke K, Wu J, Yu Z. Beneficial effects of improvement in depression, pain catastrophizing, and anxiety on pain outcomes: a 12-month longitudinal analysis. J Pain. 2016;17(2):215–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    George SZ, Valencia C, Beneciuk JM. A psychometric investigation of fear-avoidance model measures in patients with chronic low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(4):197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess. 1995;7(4):524–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Crengle S, Gunn J, Kerse N, Fishman T, et al. Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to screen for major depression in the primary care population. Ann Fam Med. 2010;8(4):348–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Suri P, Delaney K, Rundell SD, Cherkin DC. Predictive validity of the STarT back tool for risk of persistent disabling back pain in a U.S. primary care setting. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99(8):1533–1539.e2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Karayannis NV, Jull GA, Hodges PW. Movement-based subgrouping in low back pain: synergy and divergence in approaches. Physiotherapy. 2016;102(2):159–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Karayannis NV, Jull GA, Hodges PW. Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012:13, 24.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Apeldoorn AT, Ostelo RW, van Helvoirt H, Fritz JM, Knol DL, van Tulder MW, et al. A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a classification-based system for subacute and chronic low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37(16):1347–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Azevedo DC, Ferreira PH, Santos HO, Oliveira DR, de Souza JVL, Costa LOP. Movement system impairment-based classification treatment versus general exercises for chronic low back pain: randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2018;98(1):28–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fritz JM, Delitto A, Erhard RE. Comparison of classification-based physical therapy with therapy based on clinical practice guidelines for patients with acute low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28(13):1363–71; discussion 1372.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vibe Fersum K, O'Sullivan P, Skouen JS, Smith A, Kvale A. Efficacy of classification-based cognitive functional therapy in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Pain. 2013;17(6):916–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saner J, Kool J, Sieben JM, Luomajoki H, Bastiaenen CH, de Bie RA. A tailored exercise program versus general exercise for a subgroup of patients with low back pain and movement control impairment: a randomised controlled trial with one-year follow-up. Man Ther. 2015;20(5):672–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Freynhagen R, Baron R, Gockel U, Tolle TR. painDETECT: a new screening questionnaire to identify neuropathic components in patients with back pain. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22(10):1911–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Neblett R, Hartzell MM, Cohen H, Mayer TG, Williams M, Choi Y, et al. Ability of the central sensitization inventory to identify central sensitivity syndromes in an outpatient chronic pain sample. Clin J Pain. 2015;31(4):323–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tousignant-Laflamme Y, Martel MO, Joshi AB, Cook CE. Rehabilitation management of low back pain – it's time to pull it all together. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2373–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chou R, Deyo R, Friedly J, Skelly A, Hashimoto R, Weimer M, et al. Nonpharmacologic therapies for low Back pain: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(7):493–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bussieres AE, Stewart G, Al-Zoubi F, Decina P, Descarreaux M, Hayden J, et al. The treatment of neck pain-associated disorders and whiplash-associated disorders: a clinical practice guideline. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2016;39(8):523–564.e27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bernstein IA, Malik Q, Carville S, Ward S. Low back pain and sciatica: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2017;356:i6748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cote P, Wong JJ, Sutton D, Shearer HM, Mior S, Randhawa K, et al. Management of neck pain and associated disorders: a clinical practice guideline from the ontario protocol for traffic injury management (OPTIMa) collaboration. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(7):2000–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cibulka MT, Bloom NJ, Enseki KR, Macdonald CW, Woehrle J, McDonough CM. Hip pain and mobility deficits-hip osteoarthritis: revision 2017. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(6):A1–A37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kjaer P, Kongsted A, Hartvigsen J, Isenberg-Jorgensen A, Schiottz-Christensen B, Soborg B, et al. National clinical guidelines for non-surgical treatment of patients with recent onset neck pain or cervical radiculopathy. Eur Spine J. 2017;26(9):2242–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, McLean RM, Forciea MA, Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Noninvasive treatments for acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain: a clinical practice guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(7):514–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stochkendahl MJ, Kjaer P, Hartvigsen J, Kongsted A, Aaboe J, Andersen M, et al. National Clinical Guidelines for non-surgical treatment of patients with recent onset low back pain or lumbar radiculopathy. Eur Spine J. 2018;27(1):60–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Skelly AC, Chou R, Dettori JR, Turner JA, Friedly JL, Rundell SD, Fu R, Brodt ED, Wasson N, Winter C, Ferguson AJR. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2018 Jun. Report No.: 18-EHC013-EF. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    The Diagnosis and Treatment of Low Back Pain Work Group. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. 2017; Available at: Accessed 2 Mar 2019.
  56. 56.
    The Osteoarthritis Working Group. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for non-surgical management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. 2014. Available at: Accessed 2 Mar 2019.
  57. 57.
    Hauk L. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a clinical practice guideline from the AAOS. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89(11):918–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brosseau L, Wells GA, Pugh AG, Smith CA, Rahman P, Alvarez Gallardo IC, et al. Ottawa panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for therapeutic exercise in the management of hip osteoarthritis. Clin Rehabil. 2016;30(10):935–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brosseau L, Taki J, Desjardins B, Thevenot O, Fransen M, Wells GA, et al. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part one: introduction, and mind-body exercise programs. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31(5):582–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brosseau L, Taki J, Desjardins B, Thevenot O, Fransen M, Wells GA, et al. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part three: aerobic exercise programs. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31(5):612–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brosseau L, Taki J, Desjardins B, Thevenot O, Fransen M, Wells GA, et al. The Ottawa panel clinical practice guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Part two: strengthening exercise programs. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31(5):596–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Blanpied PR, Gross AR, Elliott JM, Devaney LL, Clewley D, Walton DM, et al. Neck pain: revision 2017. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(7):A1–A83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Delitto A, George SZ, Van Dillen LR, Whitman JM, Sowa G, Shekelle P, et al. Low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(4):A1–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Plinsinga ML, Brink MS, Vicenzino B, van Wilgen CP. Evidence of nervous system sensitization in commonly presenting and persistent painful tendinopathies: a systematic review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2015;45(11):864–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Scascighini L, Toma V, Dober-Spielmann S, Sprott H. Multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain: a systematic review of interventions and outcomes. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47(5):670–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wainner RS, Whitman JM, Cleland JA, Flynn TW. Regional interdependence: a musculoskeletal examination model whose time has come. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37(11):658–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Benz LN, Flynn TW. Placebo, nocebo, and expectations: leveraging positive outcomes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(7):439–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bishop MD, Mintken PE, Bialosky JE, Cleland JA. Patient expectations of benefit from interventions for neck pain and resulting influence on outcomes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(7):457–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kinney M, Seider J, Beaty AF, Coughlin K, Dyal M, Clewley D. The impact of therapeutic alliance in physical therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review of the literature. Physiother Theory Pract. 2018;28:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Whittaker GA, Munteanu SE, Menz HB, Tan JM, Rabusin CL, Landorf KB. Foot orthoses for plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(5):322–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gordon SJ, Grimmer-Somers K, Trott P. Pillow use: the behaviour of cervical pain, sleep quality and pillow comfort in side sleepers. Man Ther. 2009;14(6):671–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lis AM, Black KM, Korn H, Nordin M. Association between sitting and occupational LBP. Eur Spine J. 2007;16(2):283–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jankord R, Jemiolo B. Influence of physical activity on serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels in healthy older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(6):960–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98(4):1154–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sharma NK, Ryals JM, Gajewski BJ, Wright DE. Aerobic exercise alters analgesia and neurotrophin-3 synthesis in an animal model of chronic widespread pain. Phys Ther. 2010;90(5):714–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Saper RB, Lemaster C, Delitto A, Sherman KJ, Herman PM, Sadikova E, et al. Yoga, physical therapy, or education for chronic low back pain: a randomized noninferiority trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(2):85–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wells C, Kolt GS, Marshall P, Hill B, Bialocerkowski A. The effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100402.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Browder DA, Childs JD, Cleland JA, Fritz JM. Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2007;87(12):1608–18; discussion 1577–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Long A, Donelson R, Fung T. Does it matter which exercise? A randomized control trial of exercise for low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29(23):2593–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maccio JR, Carlton L, Levesque K, Maccio JG, Egan L. Directional preference of the extremity: a preliminary investigation. J Man Manip Ther. 2018;26(5):272–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rosedale R, Rastogi R, May S, Chesworth BM, Filice F, Willis S, et al. Efficacy of exercise intervention as determined by the McKenzie system of mechanical diagnosis and therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(3):173–81. A1-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wong JJ, Cote P, Sutton DA, Randhawa K, Yu H, Varatharajan S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the noninvasive management of low back pain: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration. Eur J Pain. 2017;21(2):201–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hicks GE, Fritz JM, Delitto A, McGill SM. Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(9):1753–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    O’Sullivan PB, Phyty GD, Twomey LT, Allison GT. Evaluation of specific stabilizing exercise in the treatment of chronic low back pain with radiologic diagnosis of spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(24):2959–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rio E, Kidgell D, Purdam C, Gaida J, Moseley GL, Pearce AJ, et al. Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(19):1277–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Luomajoki HA, Bonet Beltran MB, Careddu S, Bauer CM. Effectiveness of movement control exercise on patients with non-specific low back pain and movement control impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2018;36:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Van Dillen LR, Norton BJ, Sahrmann SA, Evanoff BA, Harris-Hayes M, Holtzman GW, et al. Efficacy of classification-specific treatment and adherence on outcomes in people with chronic low back pain. A one-year follow-up, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Man Ther. 2016;24:52–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gross AR, Haines T, Goldsmith CH, Santaguida L, McLaughlin LM, Peloso P, et al. Knowledge to action: a challenge for neck pain treatment. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39(5):351–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bade M, Cobo-Estevez M, Neeley D, Pandya J, Gunderson T, Cook C. Effects of manual therapy and exercise targeting the hips in patients with low-back pain – a randomized controlled trial. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017;23(4):734–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Daenen L, Varkey E, Kellmann M, Nijs J. Exercise, not to exercise, or how to exercise in patients with chronic pain? Applying science to practice. Clin J Pain. 2015;31(2):108–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Naugle KM, Ohlman T, Naugle KE, Riley ZA, Keith NR. Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults. Pain. 2017;158(3):383–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ambrose KR, Golightly YM. Physical exercise as non-pharmacological treatment of chronic pain: why and when. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29(1):120–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bender T, Nagy G, Barna I, Tefner I, Kadas E, Geher P. The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;100(4):371–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Koltyn KF, Garvin AW, Gardiner RL, Nelson TF. Perception of pain following aerobic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28(11):1418–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chimenti RL, Frey-Law LA, Sluka KA. A mechanism-based approach to physical therapist management of pain. Phys Ther. 2018;98(5):302–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Meng XG, Yue SW. Efficacy of aerobic exercise for treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;94(5):358–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, Price DD, Robinson ME, George SZ. The mechanisms of manual therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain: a comprehensive model. Man Ther. 2009;14(5):531–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bishop MD, Beneciuk JM, George SZ. Immediate reduction in temporal sensory summation after thoracic spinal manipulation. Spine J. 2011;11(5):440–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Coronado RA, Gay CW, Bialosky JE, Carnaby GD, Bishop MD, George SZ. Changes in pain sensitivity following spinal manipulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(5):752–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Haavik H, Murphy B. The role of spinal manipulation in addressing disordered sensorimotor integration and altered motor control. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(5):768–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Schmid A, Brunner F, Wright A, Bachmann LM. Paradigm shift in manual therapy? Evidence for a central nervous system component in the response to passive cervical joint mobilisation. Man Ther. 2008;13(5):387–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Crane JD, Ogborn DI, Cupido C, Melov S, Hubbard A, Bourgeois JM, et al. Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4(119):119ra13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Furlan AD, Giraldo M, Baskwill A, Irvin E, Imamura M. Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(9):CD001929.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gross A, Langevin P, Burnie SJ, Bedard-Brochu MS, Empey B, Dugas E, et al. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(9):CD004249.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2):CD008112.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Puentedura EJ, Cleland JA, Landers MR, Mintken PE, Louw A, Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C. Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with neck pain likely to benefit from thrust joint manipulation to the cervical spine. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(7):577–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Flynn T, Fritz J, Whitman J, Wainner R, Magel J, Rendeiro D, et al. A clinical prediction rule for classifying patients with low back pain who demonstrate short-term improvement with spinal manipulation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27(24):2835–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Roenz D, Broccolo J, Brust S, Billings J, Perrott A, Hagadorn J, et al. The impact of pragmatic vs. prescriptive study designs on the outcomes of low back and neck pain when using mobilization or manipulation techniques: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Man Manip Ther. 2018;26(3):123–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Puentedura EJ, March J, Anders J, Perez A, Landers MR, Wallmann HW, et al. Safety of cervical spine manipulation: are adverse events preventable and are manipulations being performed appropriately? A review of 134 case reports. J Man Manip Ther. 2012;20(2):66–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cleland JA, Childs JD, Fritz JM, Whitman JM, Eberhart SL. Development of a clinical prediction rule for guiding treatment of a subgroup of patients with neck pain: use of thoracic spine manipulation, exercise, and patient education. Phys Ther. 2007;87(1):9–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Currier LL, Froehlich PJ, Carow SD, McAndrew RK, Cliborne AV, Boyles RE, et al. Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with knee pain and clinical evidence of knee osteoarthritis who demonstrate a favorable short-term response to hip mobilization. Phys Ther. 2007;87(9):1106–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Iverson CA, Sutlive TG, Crowell MS, Morrell RL, Perkins MW, Garber MB, et al. Lumbopelvic manipulation for the treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: development of a clinical prediction rule. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(6):297–309; discussion 309–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mintken PE, Cleland JA, Carpenter KJ, Bieniek ML, Keirns M, Whitman JM. Some factors predict successful short-term outcomes in individuals with shoulder pain receiving cervicothoracic manipulation: a single-arm trial. Phys Ther. 2010;90(1):26–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Celenay ST, Akbayrak T, Kaya DOA. Comparison of the effects of stabilization exercises plus manual therapy to those of stabilization exercises alone in patients with nonspecific mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2016;46(2):44–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Aure OF, Nilsen JH, Vasseljen O. Manual therapy and exercise therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial with 1-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003;28(6):525–31; discussion 531–2.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hidalgo B, Hall T, Bossert J, Dugeny A, Cagnie B, Pitance L. The efficacy of manual therapy and exercise for treating non-specific neck pain: a systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30(6):1149–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cook CE, Showalter C, Kabbaz V, O'Halloran B. Can a within/between-session change in pain during reassessment predict outcome using a manual therapy intervention in patients with mechanical low back pain? Man Ther. 2012;17(4):325–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Malanga GA, Yan N, Stark J. Mechanisms and efficacy of heat and cold therapies for musculoskeletal injury. Postgrad Med. 2015;127(1):57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mac Auley DC. Ice therapy: how good is the evidence? Int J Sports Med. 2001;22(5):379–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rokugo T, Takeuchi T, Ito H. A histochemical study of substance P in the rat spinal cord: effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. J Nippon Med Sch. 2002;69(5):428–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sabino GS, Santos CM, Francischi JN, de Resende MA. Release of endogenous opioids following transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in an experimental model of acute inflammatory pain. J Pain. 2008;9(2):157–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mussttaf RA, Jenkins DFL, Jha AN. Assessing the impact of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on biological systems: a review. Int J Radiat Biol. 2019;7:1–24.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rayegani SM, Raeissadat SA, Heidari S, Moradi-Joo M. Safety and effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Lasers Med Sci. 2017;8(Suppl 1):S12–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tsai WC, Tang ST, Liang FC. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on tendons. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90(12):1068–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Philadelphia Panel. Philadelphia Panel evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on selected rehabilitation interventions for shoulder pain. Phys Ther. 2001;81(10):1719–30.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kneeshaw D. Shoulder taping in the clinical setting. JBodyw MovTher. 2002;6(1):2–8.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Li Y, Yin Y, Jia G, Chen H, Yu L, Wu D. Effects of kinesiotape on pain and disability in individuals with chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rehabil. 2018:269215518817804.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lu Z, Li X, Chen R, Guo C. Kinesio taping improves pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg. 2018;59:27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cagnie B, Dewitte V, Barbe T, Timmermans F, Delrue N, Meeus M. Physiologic effects of dry needling. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013;17(8):348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kawakita K, Okada K. Acupuncture therapy: mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety: a potential intervention for psychogenic disorders? Biopsychosoc Med. 2014;8(1):4. -0759-8-4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Elshiwi AM, Hamada HA, Mosaad D, Ragab IMA, Koura GM, Alrawaili SM. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on nonspecific low back pain patients: a randomized controlled trial. Braz J Phys Ther. 2018;23(3):244–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wang YT, Qi Y, Tang FY, Li FM, Li QH, Xu CP, et al. The effect of cupping therapy for low back pain: a meta-analysis based on existing randomized controlled trials. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30(6):1187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Perraton L, Machotka Z, Kumar S. Whole-body vibration to treat low back pain: fact or fad? Physiother Can. 2011;63(1):88–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Louw A, Diener I, Butler DS, Puentedura EJ. The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(12):2041–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Louw A, Zimney K, Puentedura EJ, Diener I. The efficacy of pain neuroscience education on musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review of the literature. Physiother Theory Pract. 2016;32(5):332–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ellis RF, Hing WA. Neural mobilization: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials with an analysis of therapeutic efficacy. J Man Manip Ther. 2008;16(1):8–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Basson A, Olivier B, Ellis R, Coppieters M, Stewart A, Mudzi W. The effectiveness of neural mobilization for neuromusculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(9):593–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Neto T, Freitas SR, Marques M, Gomes L, Andrade R, Oliveira R. Effects of lower body quadrant neural mobilization in healthy and low back pain populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017;27:14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Coppieters MW, Stappaerts KH, Wouters LL, Janssens K. The immediate effects of a cervical lateral glide treatment technique in patients with neurogenic cervicobrachial pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33(7):369–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    McClatchie L, Laprade J, Martin S, Jaglal SB, Richardson D, Agur A. Mobilizations of the asymptomatic cervical spine can reduce signs of shoulder dysfunction in adults. Man Ther. 2009;14(4):369–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Rodriguez-Sanz D, Calvo-Lobo C, Unda-Solano F, Sanz-Corbalan I, Romero-Morales C, Lopez-Lopez D. Cervical lateral glide neural mobilization is effective in treating cervicobrachial pain: a randomized waiting list controlled clinical trial. Pain Med. 2017;18(12):2492–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Satpute K, Hall T, Bisen R, Lokhande P. The effect of spinal mobilization with leg movement in patients with lumbar radiculopathy – a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;100(5):828–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tal-Akabi A, Rushton A. An investigation to compare the effectiveness of carpal bone mobilisation and neurodynamic mobilisation as methods of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Man Ther. 2000;5(4):214–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Moraska A, Chandler C, Edmiston-Schaetzel A, Franklin G, Calenda EL, Enebo B. Comparison of a targeted and general massage protocol on strength, function, and symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(3):259–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Burke J, Buchberger DJ, Carey-Loghmani MT, Dougherty PE, Greco DS, Dishman JD. A pilot study comparing two manual therapy interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2007;30(1):50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Graham N, Gross A, Goldsmith CH, Klaber Moffett J, Haines T, Burnie SJ, et al. Mechanical traction for neck pain with or without radiculopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD006408.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Macario A, Pergolizzi JV. Systematic literature review of spinal decompression via motorized traction for chronic discogenic low back pain. Pain Pract. 2006;6(3):171–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Romeo A, Vanti C, Boldrini V, Ruggeri M, Guccione AA, Pillastrini P, et al. Cervical radiculopathy: effectiveness of adding traction to physical therapy-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther. 2018;98(4):231–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Raney NH, Petersen EJ, Smith TA, Cowan JE, Rendeiro DG, Deyle GD, et al. Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with neck pain likely to benefit from cervical traction and exercise. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(3):382–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Fritz JM, Thackeray A, Brennan GP, Childs JD. Exercise only, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction for patients with cervical radiculopathy, with or without consideration of status on a previously described subgrouping rule: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(2):45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Page MJ, Massy-Westropp N, O'Connor D, Pitt V. Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(7):CD010003.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Page MJ, O'Connor D, Pitt V, Massy-Westropp N. Therapeutic ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(3):CD009601.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yildiz N, Atalay NS, Gungen GO, Sanal E, Akkaya N, Topuz O. Comparison of ultrasound and ketoprofen phonophoresis in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2011;24(1):39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Naeser MA, Hahn KA, Lieberman BE, Branco KF. Carpal tunnel syndrome pain treated with low-level laser and microamperes transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: a controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(7):978–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Graham B, Peljovich AE, Afra R, Cho MS, Gray R, Stephenson J, et al. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons evidence-based clinical practice guideline on: management of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(20):1750–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Franklin GM, Friedman AS. Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnosis and treatment guideline. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2015;26(3):523–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Industrial Insurance Chiropractic Advisory Committee. Conservative care options for carpal tunnel syndrome. 2014. Available at: Accessed 2 Mar 2019.
  158. 158.
    Huisstede BM, Hoogvliet P, Franke TP, Randsdorp MS, Koes BW. Carpal tunnel syndrome: effectiveness of physical therapy and electrophysical modalities. An updated systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99(8):1623–1634.e23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Mohammadi S, Roostayi MM, Naimi SS, Baghban AA. The effects of cupping therapy as a new approach in the physiotherapeutic management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Physiother Res Int. 2019;29:e1770.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Koca I, Boyaci A, Tutoglu A, Ucar M, Kocaturk O. Assessment of the effectiveness of interferential current therapy and TENS in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled study. Rheumatol Int. 2014;34(12):1639–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Louw A, Zimney K, O'Hotto C, Hilton S. The clinical application of teaching people about pain. Physiother Theory Pract. 2016;32(5):385–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Di Pietro F, Stanton TR, Moseley GL, Lotze M, McAuley JH. Interhemispheric somatosensory differences in chronic pain reflect abnormality of the healthy side. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36(2):508–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Louw A, Puentedura EJ, Diener I, Peoples RR. Preoperative therapeutic neuroscience education for lumbar radiculopathy: a single-case fMRI report. Physiother Theory Pract. 2015;31(7):496–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bowering KJ, O'Connell NE, Tabor A, Catley MJ, Leake HB, Moseley GL, et al. The effects of graded motor imagery and its components on chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain. 2013;14(1):3–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Moseley GL, Butler DS, Beames TD, Giles TJ. The graded motor imagery handbook. Adelaide: NOI Group Publishing; 2012.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Breckenridge JD, Ginn KA, Wallwork SB, McAuley JH. Do people with chronic musculoskeletal pain have impaired motor imagery? A meta-analytical systematic review of the left/right judgment task. J Pain. 2019;20(2):119–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yap BWD, Lim ECW. The effects of motor imagery on pain and range of motion in musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review using meta-analysis. Clin J Pain. 2019;35(1):87–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mendez-Rebolledo G, Gatica-Rojas V, Torres-Cueco R, Albornoz-Verdugo M, Guzman-Munoz E. Update on the effects of graded motor imagery and mirror therapy on complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic review. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;30(3):441–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Harden RN, Oaklander AL, Burton AW, Perez RS, Richardson K, Swan M, et al. Complex regional pain syndrome: practical diagnostic and treatment guidelines, 4th edition. Pain Med. 2013;14(2):180–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Busch AJ, Webber SC, Brachaniec M, Bidonde J, Bello-Haas VD, Danyliw AD, et al. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2011;15(5):358–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, Bidonde J, Schachter CL, Schafer LA, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD010884.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Staud R, Robinson ME, Price DD. Isometric exercise has opposite effects on central pain mechanisms in fibromyalgia patients compared to normal controls. Pain. 2005;118(1–2):176–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lannersten L, Kosek E. Dysfunction of endogenous pain inhibition during exercise with painful muscles in patients with shoulder myalgia and fibromyalgia. Pain. 2010;151(1):77–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    George SZ, Valencia C, Zeppieri G Jr, Robinson ME. Development of a self-report measure of fearful activities for patients with low back pain: the fear of daily activities questionnaire. Phys Ther. 2009;89(9):969–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    George SZ, Wittmer VT, Fillingim RB, Robinson ME. Comparison of graded exercise and graded exposure clinical outcomes for patients with chronic low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40(11):694–704.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Zafereo J, Deschenes B. The role of spinal manipulation in modifying central sensitization. J Appl Biobehav Res. 2015;20(2):84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Crawford C, Boyd C, Paat CF, Price A, Xenakis L, Yang E, et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part I, patients experiencing pain in the general population. Pain Med. 2016;17(7):1353–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    George SZ, Bishop MD, Bialosky JE, Zeppieri G Jr, Robinson ME. Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:68.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Agren G, Lundeberg T, Uvnas-Moberg K, Sato A. The oxytocin antagonist 1-deamino-2-D-Tyr-(Oet)-4-Thr-8-Orn-oxytocin reverses the increase in the withdrawal response latency to thermal, but not mechanical nociceptive stimuli following oxytocin administration or massage-like stroking in rats. Neurosci Lett. 1995;187(1):49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Schneider M, Vernon H, Ko G, Lawson G, Perera J. Chiropractic management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. J Manip Physiol Ther. 2009;32(1):25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Macfarlane GJ, Kronisch C, Dean LE, Atzeni F, Hauser W, Fluss E, et al. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76(2):318–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Li X, Wang R, Xing X, Shi X, Tian J, Zhang J, et al. Acupuncture for myofascial pain syndrome: a network meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials. Pain Physician. 2017;20(6):E883–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Castro Sanchez AM, Garcia Lopez H, Fernandez Sanchez M, Perez Marmol JM, Aguilar-Ferrandiz ME, Luque Suarez A, et al. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling versus myofascial release on pain pressure thresholds, quality of life, fatigue, pain intensity, quality of sleep, anxiety, and depression in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Disabil Rehabil. 2018;23:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Smart KM, Wand BM, O'Connell NE. Physiotherapy for pain and disability in adults with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2:CD010853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Fitzcharles MA, Ste-Marie PA, Goldenberg DL, Pereira JX, Abbey S, Choiniere M, et al. Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: executive summary. Pain Res Manag. 2012;18(3):119–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Bidonde J, Busch AJ, Webber SC, Schachter CL, Danyliw A, Overend TJ, et al. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(10):CD011336.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bidonde J, Busch AJ, van der Spuy I, Tupper S, Kim SY, Boden C. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;9:CD011755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Honda Y, Sakamoto J, Hamaue Y, Kataoka H, Kondo Y, Sasabe R, et al. Effects of physical-agent pain relief modalities for fibromyalgia patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain Res Manag. 2018;2930632:2018.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Johnson MI, Claydon LS, Herbison GP, Jones G, Paley CA. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;10:CD012172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Galhardoni R, Correia GS, Araujo H, Yeng LT, Fernandes DT, Kaziyama HH, et al. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic pain: a review of the literature. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(4 Suppl):S156–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Marlow NM, Bonilha HS, Short EB. Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review. Pain Pract. 2013;13(2):131–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Netherlands Society of Anaesthesiologists, Netherlands Society of Rehabilitation Specialists. Updated guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1. 2014. Available at: Accessed 4 Mar 2019.
  193. 193.
    Packham T, Holly J. Mechanism-specific rehabilitation management of complex regional pain syndrome: proposed recommendations from evidence synthesis. J Hand Ther. 2018;31(2):238–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical TherapyUT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations