Clinical Use of Opioids for Chronic Pain

  • William G. BroseEmail author
  • Daksh Datta
  • Justin Kromelow


Opioids are used extensively in the treatment of chronic pain. The relief of suffering created by the direct effect of these medications acting on specialized receptors within the central and peripheral nervous system is unfortunately seen with paradoxical development of suffering from the addiction, abuse, and dose-related sudden death also reported with their use. Continuing research unraveling the unique pharmacokinetic, dynamic, and genomic relationships that predict the interindividual responses to opioids offers hope for increasing efficacy and safety in their future use. In the interim, best practices to assess for risk within individuals combined with the monitoring of medication responses in real time promise to improve the current practice of chronic opioid therapy.


Opioids Chronic opioid therapy Opioid risk mitigation Chronic pain treatment Opioid pharmacogenomics Opioid risk monitoring Artificial intelligence and opioids 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • William G. Brose
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daksh Datta
    • 2
  • Justin Kromelow
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Pain MedicineStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Opos Solutions, Opos IncSan MateoUSA

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