Decision-Making with Multicriteria Optimization and GIS for Park Locations

  • Mayra Elizondo-CortésEmail author
  • Adela Jiménez-Montero


In this chapter, we present a modeling process that allows us to make decisions using optimization multi-criteria and locate parks (gardens or small recreational green areas) from a selection of a set of green areas conducive to scattering in urban areas, such as Mexico City. This modeling process consist of steps ranging from the structuring of the problem to the use of a procedure that interfaces between a Geographic Information System and multi-criteria optimization model of a discrete location. By using this procedure, we obtained results for locating parks. Relative to the optimization model used, we achieved a formulation improvement over the original model proposed by Molano and Sarmiento (Modelo de localización de áreas urbanas para construcción de nuevos parques vecinales en Bogotá, Tesis de maestría, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, 2007) by reducing the number of binary variables needed and therefore reducing its complexity. The proper use of operations research methodology promoted verified and validated results for real problems, including the case study of the Cuauhtémoc locality in Mexico City.


Modeling process Multi-criteria optimization Multi-criteria location models Green place locations Urban planning 


  1. T. Baycan-Levent, R. Vreeker, P. Nijkamp, A multi-criteria evaluation of green spaces in European cities. Eur. Urban Reg. Stud. 16(2), 219–239 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A. Chiesura, The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landsc. Urban Plan. 1(68), 129–138 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. K. Clarke, Analytical and Computer Cartography (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1995)Google Scholar
  4. C. Dym, Principles of Mathematical Modeling (Elsevier Academic Press, New York, 2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. F. Erkip, The distribution of urban public services: The case of parks and recreational services in Ankara. Cities 14(6), 353–361 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. K. Grace, L. Lee, H. Edwin, W. Chan, The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach for assessment of urban renewal proposals. Soc. Indic. Res., Springer 89(1), 55–168 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. B. Lee, A. Graefe, GIS: A tool to locate new park and recreations services. Park. Recreat. 30(10), 34–41 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. I. Majid, J. Sinden, A. Randall, Benefit evaluation of increments to existing system of public facilities. Land Econ. 59(4), 1–16 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. A. Molano, O. Sarmiento, Modelo de localización de áreas urbanas para construcción de nuevos parques vecinales en Bogotá, Tesis de maestría, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, 2007Google Scholar
  10. M. Neema, A. Ohgai, Multi-objective location modeling of urban parks and open spaces: Continuous optimization. Comput. Environ. Urban. Syst. 1(34), 359–376 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D. Nowak, J. Dwyer, G. Childs, Beneficios y costos de manejo de áreas verdes urbanas. Manuscrito para publicación en Annales del Seminario sobre Áreas Verdes Urbanas (1997, diciembre)Google Scholar
  12. K. Oh, S. Jeong, Assessing the spatial distribution of urban parks using GIS. Landsc. Urban Plan. 82, 25–32 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M. Pidd, Tools for Thinking: Modeling in Management Science (Wiley, Chichester, 1996)Google Scholar
  14. C. ReVelle, H. Eiselt, M. Daskin, A bibliography for some fundamental problema categories in discrete location science. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 184(3), 817–848 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. S. Salazar, L. Garćıa, Estimating the non-market benefits of an urban park: Does proximity matter? Land Use Policy 24(1), 296–305 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. M. Sorensen, V. Barzetti, K. Keipi, J. Williams, Manejo de áreas verdes, Documento de buenas prácticas (Mayo, Washington, D.C., 1998)Google Scholar
  17. F. Villa, M. Ceroni, A. Mazza, A GIS-based method for multi-objective evaluation of park vegetation. Landsc. Urban Plan. 35(4), 203–212 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. G. Wang, J.L. Innes, S.W. Wu, J. Krzyzanowski, Y. Yin, S. Dai, X. Zhang, S. Liu, National Park Development in China: Conservation or Commercialization? Ambio, Springer 41(3), 247–261 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. N. H. Wong, S. K. Jusuf. GIS-based greenery evaluation on campus master plan. Landsc. Urban Plan., 84(2), 166–182 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. S. Zhou, Y. Cheng, M. Xiao, X. Bao, Assessing the location of public and community facilities for the elderly in Beijing, China. Geo J., Springer 78(3), 539–551 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayra Elizondo-Cortés
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adela Jiménez-Montero
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Systems, Faculty of EngineeringNational Autonomous University of MexicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations