Validation Study of a Wave Equation Model of Soft Tissue for a New Virtual Reality Laparoscopy Training System

  • Sneha Patel
  • Jackrit SuthakornEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 574)


Despite the benefits of laparoscopic procedures for the patients, this technique comes with a number of environmental limitations for the surgeon, which therefore require distinctive psychomotor skills. VR training systems aim to improve these skills. For effective transference of skills from these training systems, it is important to mimic the surgical environment; including the soft tissue models. This study introduces a novel two dimensional wave equation model to mimic the interactions between soft tissue and laparoscopic tools. This model accounts for mechanical and material properties of the soft tissue. This study also proposes a new face validation technique, for an objective analysis of the developed model as a viable soft tissue model. The statistical analyses and computational cost support the use of wave equation as a replacement for present models. In the future, this model will be applied to a novel VR surgical training system for an enhanced training experience.


Soft tissue model Surgical training Two dimensional wave equation Finite element analysis (FEA) Computer based models Virtual reality (VR) training 



The authors would like to thank Thailand National Research University Grant through Mahidol University for their financial support. Secondly, the authors would like to thank Prof. Chumpon Wilasrusmee, M.D., R.N., Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, for his invaluable input towards the development of a virtual reality surgical training system and insights into the needs of surgeons. Lastly, we would like to thank BART LAB’s Miss Nantida Nillahoot for her design of the telesurgical/training system in Fig. 9. The first author would also like to take this opportunity to thank Aditya Birla Group’s Pratibha Scholarship, and Biomedical Engineering Scholarship (BMES) from the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mahidol University, for financial aid towards her graduate education. The first author would, finally, like to thank her colleagues at BART LAB for their continuous support and assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Biomedical and Robotics Technology (BART LAB), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringMahidol UniversitySalayaThailand

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