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Confocal Raman Microscopy in Pharmaceutical Development

  • Thomas F. Haefele
  • Kurt PaulusEmail author
Chapter
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Part of the Springer Series in Surface Sciences book series (SSSUR, volume 66)

Abstract

There is a wide range of applications of confocal Raman microscopy in pharmaceutical development. It is a powerful tool to probe the distribution of components within a formulation, to characterize homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples, to determine solid state of drug substances and excipients as well as to characterize contaminations and foreign particulates. The information obtained by confocal Raman microscopy is extremely useful, sometimes even crucial, for drug substance design, for the development of solid and liquid formulations, as a tool for process analytics and for patent infringements and counterfeit analysis. In this chapter, those aspects and applications will be presented, focusing on solid drug formulations. This chapter will also reveal the advantages and demonstrate the synergies of Raman mapping as compared to/with similar imaging methods such as SEM/EDX, NIR and MIR imaging.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dirk Märtin for his assistance with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical Research and DevelopmentNovartis Pharma AGBaselSwitzerland

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