Surfaces and Interfaces of Sputter-Deposited ZnO Films

  • A. Klein
  • F. Säuberlich
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 104)

In this chapter chemical and electronic surface and interface properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO films as determined from photoelectron spectroscopy are described. We particularly focus on interfaces that are important for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells. The use of in situ sample preparation utilizing integrated vacuum systems allows for systematic studies widely ruling out the influence of adsorbates on the electronic structure. No evidence for band bending at the surface is observed indicating the absence of surface states in the band gap. The ionization potential varies with deposition conditions, which can be attributed to changes in crystallographic orientation of the films resulting in different surface terminations. A variation of the Zn 2p and O 1s core level binding energies with respect to the valence band maximum is attributed to local disorder in films deposited from ceramic ZnO targets at room temperature without addition of oxygen to the sputter gas.


Valence Band Core Level Valence Band Maximum Conduction Band Minimum Energy Band Diagram 
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© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Klein
    • F. Säuberlich
      • 1
    1. 1.Institute of Material ScienceUniversity of Technology DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany

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