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A theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended its area of applicability. Therefore the deep impression that classical thermodynamics made upon me. It is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown.” (Albert Einstein, in Schilpp 1949). It is on the rock of classical thermodynamics that the chemical models of this book rest. This chapter gives an overview of the following book chapters. In Chapter 2, the book provides an overview from classical thermodynamics to derivation of chemical potentials, activities, activity coefficients, equilibrium constants, and the Pitzer approach to modeling. In Chapter 3, the FREZCHEM model is described. Chapter 4 discusses life-limiting factors such as temperature, salinity, acidity, desiccation, radiation, pressure, and time. Chapter 5 presents applications of the FREZCHEM model to Earth, Mars, and Europa. In Chapter 6, we discuss a search strategy for life in the Universe, and speculate about future life on Earth, in our Solar System, and in the Universe.