Aqueous Chemistry

Part of the Advances in Astrobiology and Biogeophysics book series (ASTROBIO)


In Chapter 2, the book begins with a discussion of classical thermodynamics introducing the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the basic properties of systems such as internal energy (U), enthalpy (H), entropy (S), and Gibbs energy (G). From these quantities, we derive chemical potentials, activities, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants. These are the basic principles upon which our equilibrium chemical thermodynamic model rests. Since one of our primary tasks is to present the Pitzer approach for modeling concentrated electrolyte solutions, his Thermodynamics textbook is ideally organized in laying out the basic principles upon which these models rest. Also, different authors sometimes define terms such as the Debye-Hückel slope somewhat differently, which can lead to confusion. In this work, we carefully followed Pitzer’s definitions (Pitzer, 1991, 1995). Next, we examine the Pitzer approach for defining chemical thermodynamic properties of highly concentrated solutions. The model developed in this work was originally designed to deal with freezing processes that can quickly concentrate solutes. Therefore, the Pitzer approach was ideally suited for this purpose.


Pressure Dependence Partial Molal Volume Standard Enthalpy Aqueous Chemistry Gibbs Energy Function 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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