Pervasive Computing

  • Alois Ferscha


Pervasive Computing has developed a vision where the “computer” is no longer associated with the concept of a single device or a network of devices, but rather the entirety of situative services originating in a digital world, which are perceived through the physical world. It is expected that services with explicit user input and output will be replaced by a computing landscape sensing the physical world via a huge variety of sensors, and controlling it via a plethora of actuators. The nature and appearance of computing devices will change to be hidden in the fabric of everyday life, invisibly networked, and omnipresent. Applications and services will have to be greatly based on the notions of context and knowledge, and will have to cope with highly dynamic environments and changing resources. “Context” refers to any information describing the situation of an entity, like a person, a thing or a place. Interaction with such computing landscapes will presumably be more implicit, at the periphery of human attention, rather than explicit, i.e. at the focus of attention. In this chapter we will address some of the Pervasive Computing research challenges and emerging issues of interaction in Pervasive Computing environments. After computing devices pervade into objects of everyday life, computers will be “invisible”, but physical interfaces will be “omnipresent”—hidden in literally “every thing”. It will contrast implicit and explicit interaction approaches at the frontiers of pervasive, integrated and thus “hidden” technology. In the outlook, we will give a more systematic prospect of emerging lines of research.


Remote Control Spatial Relation Ubiquitous Computing Hand Gesture Pervasive Computing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [AEG94]
    Alia I. Abdelmoty and B.A. El-Geresy. An intersection-based formalism for representing orientation relations in a geographic database. In 2nd ACM Workshop on Advances In Geographic Information Systems, Workshop at CIKM 1995, Gaitherburg, MD, USA, December 1-2, 1994, pages 44–51. ACM Press, December 1994.Google Scholar
  2. [All83]
    James F. Allen. Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals. Communications of the ACM, 26(11):832–843, 1983.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [BF04]
    John A. Bateman and Scott Farrar. Towards a generic foundation for spatial ontology. In 3rd International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems, FOIS 2004, Torino, Italy, November 4-6, 2004, pages 237–248, Amsterdam, 2004. IOS Press.Google Scholar
  4. [BGK04]
    A Butz, M Groß, and A Krüger. Tuister: a tangible ui for hierarchical structures. In in Proceedings of PI03: Workshop on Real World User Interfaces, held at Mobile HCI 2003, pages 223–225. ACM Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  5. [Blu]
    The bluetooth specification. Scholar
  6. [BSKH05]
    Andreas Butz, Michael Schmitz, Antonio Krüger, and Harald Hullmann. Tangible uis for media control: probes into the design space. In CHI ’05: CHI ’05 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pages 957–971, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM.Google Scholar
  7. [CBGG97]
    Anthony G. Cohn, Brandon Bennett, John Gooday, and Nicholas M. Gotts. Representing and reasoning with qualitative spatial relations about regions. In Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, pages 97–134. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.Google Scholar
  8. [CFH97]
    Eliseo Clementini, Paolino Di Felice, and Daniel Hernández. Qualitative representation of positional information. Artificial Intelligence, 95(2):317–356, 1997.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. [CFS+01]
    Scott Camazine, Nigel R. Franks, James Sneyd, Eric Bonabeau, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, and Guy Theraula. Self-Organization in Biological Systems. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2001.Google Scholar
  10. [CH01]
    Anthony G. Cohn and Shyamanta M. Hazarika. Qualitative spatial representation and reasoning: An overview. Fundamenta Informaticae, 46(1-2):1–29, 2001.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. [ClDJG02]
    Ken Camarata, Ehen Yi luen Do, Brian R Johnson, and Mark D Gross. Navigational blocks: navigating information space with tangible media. In In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, pages 31–38. ACM Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  12. [Dan]
    Peter H. Dana. Coordinate systems overview. geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys.html, last visited on December 12th, 2007.Google Scholar
  13. [DB92]
    Paul Dourish and Victoria Bellotti. Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, CSCW’92, Toronto, USA, November 1-4, 1992, The Power of Simple Shared Workspaces, pages 107–114, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. [Dey01]
    Anind Dey. Understanding and using context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 5(1):4–7, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [DFWW06]
    Frank Dylla, Lutz Frommberger, Jan O. Wallgrün, and Diedrich Wolter. SparQ: A toolbox for qualitative spatial representation and reasoning. In Qualitative Constraint Calculi: Application and Integration, Workshop at KI 2006, Bremen, Germany, June 14, 2006, pages 79–90, 2006.Google Scholar
  16. [Dou01]
    Dourish, Paul. Where the Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction. MIT Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. [Ege89]
    Max J. Egenhofer. A formal definition of binary topological relationships. In FODO, volume 367 of LNCS, pages 457–472. Springer, 1989.Google Scholar
  18. [Eka]
    Ekahau Inc. Positioning engine., last visited on December 12th, 2007.Google Scholar
  19. [ELM+99]
    K. F. Eustice, T. J. Lehman, A. Morales, M. C. Munson, S. Edlund, and M. Guillen. A universal information appliance. IBM Systems Journal, 38(4):575–601, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. [FHdSR+07]
    Alois Ferscha, Manfred Hechinger, Marcos dos Santos Rocha, Rene Mayrhofer, Andreas Zeidler, Andreas Riener, and Marquart Franz. Building flexible manufacturing systems based on peer-its. EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, October 2007.Google Scholar
  21. [FHR+06a]
    Alois Ferscha, Manfred Hechinger, Andreas Riener, Heinrich Schmitzberger, Marquart Franz, Marcos dos Santos Rocha, and Andreas Zeidler. Contextaware profiles. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2006), page 48, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, April 2006. IEEE CS Press.Google Scholar
  22. [FHR06b]
    Alois Ferscha, Clemens Holzmann, and Stefan Resmerita. The key knob. In Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW’06), page 62, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, July 2006. IEEE CS Press.Google Scholar
  23. [FHR+08]
    Alois Ferscha, Manfred Hechinger, Andreas Riener, Marcos dos Santos Rocha, Andreas Zeidler, Marquart Franz, and Rene Mayrhofer. Peer-it: Stick-on solutions for networks of things. Pervasive and Mobile Computing Journal, 4(3):448–479, June 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [Fis04]
    Kenneth P. Fishkin. A taxonomy for and analysis of tangible interfaces. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 8(5):347–358, 2004.Google Scholar
  25. [Fit96]
    George W. Fitzmaurice. Graspable User Interfaces. PhD thesis, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of Toronto, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. [FMH98]
    Kenneth P. Fishkin, Thomas P. Moran, and Beverly L. Harrison. Embodied user interfaces: Towards invisible user interfaces. In Stéphane Chatty and Prasun Dewan, editors, EHCI, volume 150 of IFIP Conference Proceedings, pages 1–18. Kluwer, 1998.Google Scholar
  27. [For97]
    Kenneth D. Forbus. Qualitative reasoning. In The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook, pages 715–733. 1997.Google Scholar
  28. [FR93]
    C. Freksa and R. Röhrig. Dimensions of qualitative spatial reasoning. In N. Piera Carreté and M. G. Singh, editors, 3rd IMACS Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning and Decision Technologies, QUARDET 1993, Catalunya, Spain, June 16-18, 1993, pages 483–492, 1993.Google Scholar
  29. [FR07]
    A. Ferscha and S. Resmerita. Gestural interaction in the pervasive computing landscape. 2007.Google Scholar
  30. [Fra98]
    Andrew U. Frank. Formal models for cognition - taxonomy of spatial location description and frames of reference. In Spatial Cognition, An Interdisciplinary Approach to Representing and Processing Spatial Knowledge, volume 1404 of LNCS, pages 293–312. Springer, 1998.Google Scholar
  31. [Fre92]
    Christian Freksa. Using orientation information for qualitative spatial reasoning. In International Conference GIS - From Space to Territory: Theories and Methods of Spatio-Temporal Reasoning, Pisa, Italy, September 21-23, 1992, volume 639 of LNCS, pages 162–178. Springer, 1992.Google Scholar
  32. [FRHR05]
    Alois Ferscha, Stefan Resmerita, Clemens Holzmann, and Martin Reichör. Orientation sensing for gesture-based interaction with smart artifacts. Journal of Computer Communications, 28(13):1552–1563, August 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [HB01]
    J. Hightower and G. Borriello. A survey and taxonomy of location systems for ubiquitous computing. Technical report, Seattle, WA, USA, August 2001. Extended paper from Computer, 34(8) p57-66, August 2001.Google Scholar
  34. [HCF95]
    Daniel Hernández, Eliseo Clementini, and Paolino Di Felice. Qualitative distances. In Spatial Information Theory: A Theoretical Basis for GIS, International Conference COSIT 1995, Semmering, Austria, September 21-23, 1995, volume 988 of LNCS, pages 45–57. Springer, 1995.Google Scholar
  35. [HE03]
    David Hales and Bruce Edmonds. Evolving social rationality for MAS using “tags”. In 2nd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS 2003, Melbourne, Australia, July 14-18, 2003, pages 497–503, New York, NY, USA, 2003. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  36. [Her94]
    Daniel Hernández. Qualitative Representation of Spatial Knowledge, volume 804 of LNCS. Springer, 1994.Google Scholar
  37. [HF07]
    Clemens Holzmann and Alois Ferscha. Towards collective spatial awareness using binary relations. In 3rd International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems, ICAS 2007, Athens, Greece, June 19-25, 2007, page 36. IEEE CS Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  38. [HG03]
    Francis Heylighen and Carlos Gershenson. The meaning of self-organization in computing. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 18(4):72–75, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [HKBT05]
    Marios Hadjieleftheriou, George Kollios, Petko Bakalov, and Vassilis J. Tsotras. Complex spatio-temporal pattern queries. In 31st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, VLDB, Trondheim, Norway, August 30 - September 2, 2005, pages 877–888. ACM, 2005.Google Scholar
  40. [HKG+05]
    Mike Hazas, Christian Kray, Hans-Werner Gellersen, Henoc Agbota, Gerd Kortuem, and Albert Krohn. A relative positioning system for co-located mobile devices. In 3rd International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, MobiSys 2005, Seattle, Washington, USA, June 6-8, 2005, pages 177–190. ACM, 2005.Google Scholar
  41. [HKH+04]
    David Holstius, John Kembel, Amy Hurst, Wan, Peng-Hui, and Jodi Forlizzi. Infotropism: living and robotic plants as interactive displays. In Proceedings of DIS’04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques, Museums and public displays, pages 215–221, 2004.Google Scholar
  42. [HKSSR97]
    Todd D. Hodes, Randy H. Katz, Edouard Servan-Schreiber, and Lawrence A. Rowe. Composable ad-hoc mobile services for universal interaction. In MOBICOM, pages 1–12, 1997.Google Scholar
  43. [HL07]
    Steve Hinske and Matthias Lampe. Semantic mapping of augmented toys between the physical and virtual world. In Workshop on Tangible User Interfaces in Context and Theory at CHI 2007, 2007.Google Scholar
  44. [HMG05]
    Klaus Herrmann, Gero Muhl, and Kurt Geihs. Self-management: The solution to complexity or just another problem? IEEE Distributed Systems Online, 6(1), 2005.Google Scholar
  45. [HN02]
    Jerry R. Hobbs and Srini Narayanan. Spatial representation and reasoning. In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. MacMillan, London, UK, 2002.Google Scholar
  46. [Hol07a]
    Clemens Holzmann. Inferring and distributing spatial context. In 2nd European Conference on Smart Sensing and Context, EuroSSC 2007, Kendal, England, October 23-25, 2007, volume 4793 of LNCS, pages 77–92. Springer, 2007.Google Scholar
  47. [Hol07b]
    Clemens Holzmann. Rule-based reasoning about qualitative spatiotemporal relations. In 5th International Workshop on Middleware for Pervasive and Ad-Hoc Computing, MPAC 2007, Newport Beach, CA, USA, November 26-30, 2007, pages 49–54. ACM Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  48. [Hor01]
    Paul Horn. Autonomic computing: Ibm’s perspective on the state of information technology. Technical report, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), New Orchard Road, Armonk, NY 10504, USA, October 2001.Google Scholar
  49. [HRLF06]
    Clemens Holzmann, Stefan Resmerita, Michael H. Leitner, and Alois Ferscha. A paradigm for orientation-based universal remote control. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on the Tangible Space Initiative (TSI 2006), in conjunction with Pervasive 2006, pages 425–432, Dublin, Ireland, May 2006.Google Scholar
  50. [HSK04]
    Mike Hazas, James Scott, and John Krumm. Location-aware computing comes of age. IEEE Computer, 37(3):95–97, 2004.Google Scholar
  51. [IHM03]
    Amar Isli, Volker Haarslev, and Ralf Möller. Combining cardinal direction relations and relative orientation relations in qualitative spatial reasoning. CoRR, cs.AI/0307048, 2003.Google Scholar
  52. [IoD]
    National Imagery and Mapping Agency: Department of Defense. World geodetic system 1984, its definition and relationships with local geodetic systems, third edition, national geospatial-intelligence agency. wgs84fin.pdf, last visited on December 12th, 2007.Google Scholar
  53. [IU97]
    Hiroshi Ishii and Brygg Ullmer. Tangible bits: Towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms. In Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, volume 1 of PAPERS: Beyond the Desktop, pages 234–241, 1997.Google Scholar
  54. [JBL+06]
    Márk Jelasity, ¨Ozalp Babaoglu, Robert Laddaga, Radhika Nagpal, Franco Zambonelli, Emin Gün Sirer, Hakima Chaouchi, and Mikhail I. Smirnov. Interdisciplinary research: Roles for self-organization. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(2):50–58, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [JBo] Drools 4.0 rules engine., 2007.Google Scholar
  56. [KC03]
    Jeffrey O. Kephart and David M. Chess. The vision of autonomic computing. IEEE Computer, 36(1):41–50, 2003.Google Scholar
  57. [KE01]
    James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart. Swarm Intelligence. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Evolutionary Computation. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, USA, March 2001.Google Scholar
  58. [KKG05]
    Gerd Kortuem, Christian Kray, and Hans Gellersen. Sensing and visualizing spatial relations of mobile devices. In 18th annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST 2005, Seattle, WA, USA, pages 93–102, New York, NY, USA, 2005. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  59. [KLH02]
    Khomkrit Kaowthumrong, John Lebsack, and Richard Han. Automated selection of the active device in interactive multi-device smart spaces. In In Workshop at UbiComp’02: Supporting Spontaneous Interaction in Ubiquitous Computing Settings, 2002.Google Scholar
  60. [KS03]
    Christian Kray and Martin Strohbach. Gesture-based interface reconfiguration. In Workshop ”AI in mobile systems” (AIMS 2003) at Ubicomp’03, 2003.Google Scholar
  61. [Leo98]
    Ulf Leonhardt. Supporting Location-Awareness in Open Distributed Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London, UK, may 1998.Google Scholar
  62. [MDF05]
    Reinhard Moratz, Frank Dylla, and Lutz Frommberger. A relative orientation algebra with adjustable granularity. In Workshop on Agents in Real-Time and Dynamic Environments at IJCAI 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2005.Google Scholar
  63. [MMTZ06]
    Marco Mamei, Ronaldo Menezes, Robert Tolksdorf, and Franco Zambonelli. Case studies for self-organization in computer science. Journal of Systems Architecture, 2006. in press.Google Scholar
  64. [Mor04]
    Reinhard Moratz. Qualitative spatial reasoning about oriented points. Technical Report SFB/TR 8 Report No. 003-10/2004, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, October 2004.Google Scholar
  65. [MRW00]
    Reinhard Moratz, Jochen Renz, and Diedrich Wolter. Qualitative spatial reasoning about line segments. In Werner Horn, editor, 14th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI 2000, Berlin, Germany, August 20-25, 2000, pages 234–238. IOS Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  66. [MS01]
    Todd Miller and John Stasko. The infocanvas: information conveyance through personalized, expressive art. In Proceedings of ACM CHI 2001 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, volume 2 of Short talks: expressing emotion through art, music, and technology (expressing emotions), pages 305–306, 2001.Google Scholar
  67. [MSER99]
    Alexandra Musto, Klaus Stein, Andreas Eisenkolb, and Thomas Röfer. Qualitative and quantitative representations of locomotion and their application in robot navigation. In Thomas Dean, editor, IJCAI, pages 1067–1073. Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.Google Scholar
  68. [MTBF03]
    Reinhard Moratz, Thora Tenbrink, John A. Bateman, and Kerstin Fischer. Spatial knowledge representation for human-robot interaction. In Spatial Cognition III, Routes and Navigation, Human Memory and Learning, Spatial Representation and Spatial Learning, volume 2685 of LNCS, pages 263–286. Springer, 2003.Google Scholar
  69. [MZ05]
    Marco Mamei and Franco Zambonelli. Spatial computing: the TOTA approach. In ¨Ozalp Babaoglu, Márk Jelasity, Alberto Montresor, Christof Fetzer, Stefano Leonardi, Aad P. A. van Moorsel, and Maarten van Steen, editors, Self-star Properties in Complex Information Systems, volume 3460 of LNCS, pages 307–324. Springer, 2005.Google Scholar
  70. [Nfc]
    The near field communication forum. Scholar
  71. [Nor99]
    Donald A. Norman. Affordance, conventions, and design. Interactions, 6(3):38–43, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [PAW07]
    Trevor Pering, Yaw Anokwa, and Roy Want. Gesture connect: facilitating tangible interaction with a flick of the wrist. In Brygg Ullmer and Albrecht Schmidt, editors, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction 2007, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, pages 259–262. ACM, 2007.Google Scholar
  73. [PLF+01]
    Shankar Ponnekanti, Brian Lee, Armando Fox, Pat Hanrahan, and Terry Winograd. ICrafter: A service framework for ubiquitous computing environments. In Gregory D. Abowd, Barry Brumitt, and Steven A. Shafer, editors, Ubicomp, volume 2201 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 56–75. Springer, 2001.Google Scholar
  74. [RCC92]
    David A. Randell, Zhan Cui, and Anthony G. Cohn. A spatial logic based on regions and connection. In Bernhard Nebel, Charles Rich, and William Swartout, editors, 3rd International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, KR 1992, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, October 25-29, 1992, pages 165–176. Morgan Kaufmann, 1992.Google Scholar
  75. [Rek96]
    Jun Rekimoto. Tilting operations for small screen interfaces. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Papers: Interaction Techniques (TechNote), pages 167–168, 1996.Google Scholar
  76. [RM04]
    Jochen Renz and Debasis Mitra. Qualitative direction calculi with arbitrary granularity. In 8th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, PRICAI 2004, Auckland, New Zealand, August 9-13, 2004, volume 3157 of LNCS, pages 65–74. Springer, 2004.Google Scholar
  77. [RS00]
    Jun Rekimoto and Eduardo Sciammarella. Toolstone: Effective use of the physical manipulation vocabularies of input devices. In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Sensing User Activity, pages 109–117, 2000.Google Scholar
  78. [SFH+03a]
    Giovanna Di Marzo Serugendo, Noria Foukia, Salima Hassas, Anthony Karageorgos, Soraya Kouadri Mostéfaoui, Omer F. Rana, Mihaela Ulieru, Paul Valckenaers, and Chris van Aart. Self-organisation: Paradigms and applications. In Engineering Self-Organising Systems, volume 2977 of LNCS, pages 1–19. Springer, 2003.Google Scholar
  79. [SFH+03b]
    Giovanna Di Marzo Serugendo, Noria Foukia, Salima Hassas, Anthony Karageorgos, Soraya Kouadri Mostéfaoui, Omer F. Rana, Mihaela Ulieru, Paul Valckenaers, and Chris van Aart. Self-organisation: Paradigms and applications. In 1st International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organising Applications, ESOA 2003, Workshop at AAMAS 2003, Melbourne, Australia, July 15, 2003, volume 2977 of LNCS, pages 1–19. Springer, 2003.Google Scholar
  80. [SG07]
    Eric Schweikardt and Mark D. Gross. A brief survey of distributed computational toys. In Tak-Wai Chan, Ana Paiva, David Williamson Shaffer, Kinshuk, and Jie-Chi Yang, editors, DIGITEL, pages 57–64. IEEE Computer Society, 2007.Google Scholar
  81. [Ten05]
    Thora Tenbrink. Semantics and application of spatial dimensional terms in english and german. Technical Report SFB/TR 8 Report No. 004-03/2005, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, March 2005.Google Scholar
  82. [UI00]
    Brygg Ullmer and Hiroshi Ishii. Emerging frameworks for tangible user interfaces. IBM Systems Journal, 39(3&4):915, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [Upn]
    Universal plug and play. Scholar
  84. [VKP+03]
    Pasi Välkkynen, Ilkka Korhonen, Johan Plomp, Timo Tuomisto, Luc Cluimans, Heikki Ailisto, and Heikki Seppä. A user interaction paradigm for physical browsing and near-object control based on tags. In Proceedings of Physical Interaction Workshop on Real World User Interfaces, in the Mobile HCI Conference 2003, Udine, IT, pages 31–34, 2003.Google Scholar
  85. [VL07]
    Jose Ramon Rios Viqueira and Nikos A. Lorentzos. SQL extension for spatiotemporal data. International Journal on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB), 16(2):179–200, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [VZT05]
    Gregg Vanderheiden, Gottfried Zimmermann, and Shari Trewin. Interface sockets, remote consoles, and natural language agents: A v2 urc standards whitepaper. White paper, URC Consortium, February 2005.Google Scholar
  87. [Wal99]
    J. Waldo. The jini architecture for network-centric computing. Communications of the ACM, 42(7):76–82, July 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [Wan04]
    Yingxu Wang. On autonomous computing and cognitive processes. In 3rd International Conference on Cognitive Informatics, ICCI’04, August 16-17, 2004, pages 3–4. Theoretical and Empirical Software Engineering Research Center, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4, IEEE CS Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  89. [WFDW07]
    Jan Oliver Wallgrün, Lutz Frommberger, Frank Dylla, and Diedrich Wolter. SparQ user manual v0.7. Technical report, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, July 2007.Google Scholar
  90. [Wif]
    The wireless fidelity alliance. Scholar
  91. [ZGMT04]
    Franco Zambonelli, Marie Pierre Gleizes, Marco Mamei, and Robert Tolksdorf. Spray computers: Frontiers of self-organization for pervasive computing. In 13th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies, WETICE 2004, Modena, Italy, June 14-16, 2004, pages 403–408. IEEE CS Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  92. [Zig]
    The zigbee alliance. Scholar
  93. [ZM04]
    Franco Zambonelli and Marco Mamei. Spatial computing: An emerging paradigm for autonomic computing and communication. In 1st International IFIP Workshop on Autonomic Communication, WAC 2004, Berlin, Germany, October 18-19, 2004, volume 3457 of LNCS, pages 44–57. Springer, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alois Ferscha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pervasive ComputingJohannes Kepler University Linz (JKU)LinzAustria

Personalised recommendations