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Mass Transfer Phenomena in Nuclear Waste Packages

  • F. Frizon
  • S. Gin
  • C. Jegou
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Transport Phenomena book series (ADVTRANS, volume 1)

Abstract

As part of an integrated management approach to the wasteforms arising from medical, industrial or research activities implementing radioactive materials, several countries throughout the world are considering geological disposal of long-lived intermediate- and high-level waste. An essential prerequisite is to develop a suitable waste disposition route in which waste conditioning is one of the key aspect. Conditioning is not only imposed by scientific necessities, such as the half-lives of the radioactive isotopes concerned and by their activity levels; it is also influenced by the specific approaches and developments in each country, such as the decision to reprocess the spent fuel from pressurized water reactors or to opt instead for direct disposal. Nevertheless, three mineral materials are found at the core of the strategies developed throughout the world: ceramics, comprising the fuel rods themselves, which can be destined for direct disposal with or without prior interim storage; nuclear glasses, used to condition solutions rich in minor actinides, fission products and activation products after fuel reprocessing, i.e. high-level waste; and cement materials, mainly secondary process waste, i.e. low- and intermediate-level waste. These three categories of nuclear waste conditioning materials are examined in this chapter with respect to mass transfer phenomena liable to occur in a deep geological repository. The fundamental mass transfer phenomena involved differ considerably depending on the physical and chemical properties of the materials, on the specific constraints raised by their presence in waste packages, and on the repository operating conditions — especially in a water-saturated geological environment. This section describes the principal transport phenomena involved according to the environmental conditions for each material. This systematic approach highlights the scientific issues associated with each material and identifies their particular features as the seat of mass transfer; each material is a subject of experimental investigation or specific modeling activities.

Keywords

Cement Paste Calcium Silicate Hydrate Spend Fuel Waste Package Mass Transfer Phenomenon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Frizon
    • 1
  • S. Gin
    • 1
  • C. Jegou
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear Energy Division, Waste Treatment and Conditioning Research DepartmentCommissariat a l’Énergie Atomique (CEA)France

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