Advertisement

Ethnohistory: Impressions and Perceptions of Maize

  • John E. StallerEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.8k Downloads

Abstract

The sixteenth century documents, pictorial codices, and iconographic and hieroglyphic texts are all evaluated to consider how earlier Indo-European perceptions of the New World influenced our current understanding of the roles and importance of maize to sociocultural development. Primary focus is given to the earliest primary and secondary ethnohistoric accounts regarding the role of maize to New World cultures. Since all the sixteenth century accounts were written to be part of history, they are generally narrative and descriptive (Carmack 1973). Their analytical and historical importance is not only that they provide a picture of relatively pristine native culture (see, e.g., Cortés 1963 (1485–1547?); 1991 (1519–1526); Díaz 1953 (1567–1575); and Landa 1975 (1566)), but also that they are a reflection of the sixteenth century New Word culture and their perceptions of the world around them. The only regions where native documents compare in ethnohistoric value to the Spanish sources are those written in Mexico and Guatemala during the sixteenth century (Carmack 1973; Carmack et al. 1996; and Barber and Berdan 1998). Most of the preHispanic codices were destroyed in various campaigns to eradicate pagan idolatry (Acosta 1961 (1590); Durán 1971 (1581); Landa 1975 (1566); Las Casas 1992 (1552); and Sepulveda and Las Casas 1975 (1540)). Those codices produced after the conquest are largely commissioned by the Spanish nobility and illustrated by indigenous and mestizo scribes who had converted to Catholicism. Consequently, the content of most such colonial indigenous texts were conditioned to varying degrees by sixteenth century European perceptions and cultural biases (Staller 2009).

Keywords

Indigenous Population Sixteenth Century Maize Kernel Maize Flour Colonial Official 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acosta J (1961 [1590]) In: O’Gorman E (ed) Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias, 2nd edn. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico, DFGoogle Scholar
  2. Alt KW (2005) Ethnic anthropology. Ethnohistory. Ethnic interpretations of early-historical archaeology. History, fundamentals and alternatives. Homo J Comp Hum Biol 56(1):23–36Google Scholar
  3. Anderson E (1947a) Popcorn. Nat His 56(5):227–230Google Scholar
  4. Anderson AJO, Berdan F, Lockhart JM (1976) Beyond the codices: the Nahua view of colonial Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrew D, Fernandez-Armesto F, Novi C, Williams G (eds) (2001) [1789-94]. The Malaspina expedition 1789-1794- The journal of the voyage by Alejandro Malaspina: Volume 1 Cadiz to Panama. Introduction by Donald C. Cutter. London, The Hakluyt Society & Madrid, The Museo Naval.Google Scholar
  6. Aveni AF (2000) Empires of time: calendars, clocks, and cultures. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. de Azara F (1809) Voyages dans l’Amérique Méridionale. Paris 1:146–148Google Scholar
  8. Baird ET (1993) The drawings of Sahagun’s Primeros Memoriales. University of Oklahoma Press, NormanGoogle Scholar
  9. Barber RJ, Berdan F (1998) The emperor's mirror: understanding cultures through primary sources. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  10. Beadle GW (1972) The mystery of maize. Chicago. Field Mus Natl His Bull 43(10):2–11Google Scholar
  11. Beaumont P (1932 [1700s]) Crónica de Michoacán, vol 3. Publicaciones del Archivo General del Nación, México D.FGoogle Scholar
  12. Benz B, Perales H, Brush S (2007) Tzeltal and Tzotzil farmer knowledge and maize diversity in chiapas, Mexico. Curr Anthropol 48(2):289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berdan F (1982) The Aztecs of Central Mexico: an imperial society. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Fort Worth, TXGoogle Scholar
  14. Berdan FF, Anawalt PR (eds) (1992 [1541–1542]) The codex Mendoza, vol 4. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  15. Berlin B (1992) Ethnobiological classification: principles of categorization of plants and animals in traditional societies. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  16. Berlin B, Breedlove DE, Raven PH (1974) Principles of Tzeltal plant classification. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Betanzos J de (1968 [1551]) Suma y narración de los Incas, vol 209, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles. Atlas, MadridGoogle Scholar
  18. Betanzos J de (1987) [1551] Suma y narración de los incas. In: C.M. Rubio (ed). Madrid.Google Scholar
  19. Betanzos J de (1996 [1557]) Narrative of the Incas. Translated and edited by R. Hamilton and D. Buchanan from the Palma de Mallorca Manucript. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  20. Blacker IR, Rosen HM (eds) (1960) The golden conquistadores. Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, INGoogle Scholar
  21. Bretting PK, Goodman MM, Stuber CW (1987) Karyological and isozyme variation in West Indian and allied American mainland races of maize. Am J Bot 74(11):1601–1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown DF (2005) The chontal maya of tabasco. In: Sandstrom AR, HugoGarcíaValencía E (eds) Native peoples of the Gulf Coast of Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 114–138Google Scholar
  23. Brown WL (1953) Maize of the West Indies. Trop Agric 30:141–170Google Scholar
  24. Brown WL (1960) Races of maize in the West Indies, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Publication 792. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. Bruman HJ (2000) Alcohol in ancient Mexico. Forward by Peter T. Furst. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UTGoogle Scholar
  26. Burland CA, Forman W (1975) Feathered serpent and smoking mirror. The gods and cultures of ancient Mexico. Orbis Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlsen RS, Prechtel M (1991) The flowering of the dead: an interpretation of highland Maya culture. Man 26:23–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carmack RM (1973) Quichean civilization; the ethnohistoric, ethnographic, and archaeological sources. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  29. Carmack RM, Gasco J, Gossen GH (1996) The legacy of Mesoamerica: history and culture of a Native American civilization. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  30. Carrasco D (1999) City of sacrifice: the Aztec empire and the role of violence in civilization. Beacon Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  31. Carrasco MD (2009) From field to hearth: an earthly interpretation of May and Mesoamerican creation myths. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 601–634Google Scholar
  32. Carrasco MD, Hull KM (2002) The cosmogonic symbolism of the corbeled vault in maya architecture. Mexicon 24(2):26–32Google Scholar
  33. Christenson AJ (2001) Art and society in a highland Maya community – the altarpiece of Santiago Atitlán. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  34. Christenson AJ (2003) Popol Vuh: sacred book of the Maya. O Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Christenson AJ (2008) Places of emergence: sacred mountains and cofradía ceremonies. In: Staller JE (ed) Pre-Columbian landscapes of creation and origin. Springer, New York, pp 95–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cieza de León P (1998[1553]) The discovery and conquest of Peru. Chronicles of the New World encounter. Edited and translated by Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  37. Classen C (1993) Inca cosmology and the human body. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UTGoogle Scholar
  38. Clavigero FJ (1844) Historia Antigua de México y de su conquista. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencía. México D.F.Google Scholar
  39. Cobo FrB (1990 [1653]) Inca religion and customs. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX Translated by R. Hamilton (ed). Forward by John H. RoweGoogle Scholar
  40. Coe MD (1994a) Mexico, 4th edn. Thames and Hudson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Coe SD (1994b) America’s first cuisines. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  42. Coe SD, Coe MD (1996) The true history of chocolate. Thames and Hudson Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Columbus C (1930) [1492–1507?] The Voyages of Christopher Columbus being the Journal of his first and third, and the letters concerning his first and last voyages, to which is added the account of his second voyage written by Andres Bernaldez. Edited and translated by Cecil Jane. London: The Agronaut Press. Empire House, 175 PiccadillyGoogle Scholar
  44. Columbus C (1970) [1492] Capitulaciones del Almirante don Cristóbal Colón y salvoconductos para el descubrimiento del nuevo mundo. 17 April 1492. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencía. MadridGoogle Scholar
  45. Columbus C (1990 [1492]) Journal of the first Voyage. Aris & Phillips, Ltd, Warminster, England. Warminster Edited and translated by E. W. IfeGoogle Scholar
  46. Cortés H (1963 [1485-1547?]) Cartas y Documentos. In: Hernández Sánchez-Barba MH (ed) Biblioteca Porrúa, vol 2. Editorial Porrúa, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  47. Cortez H (1991 [1519-1526]) Five letters, 1519-1526. Norton, New York Edited by B. MorrisGoogle Scholar
  48. Cummins TBF (2002) Toasts with the Inca: Andean abstraction and colonial images on Quero vessels. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  49. Cummins TBF (2004) Silver threads and golden needles: the Inca, the Spanish and the sacred World of humanity. In: Phipps E, Hecht J, Martín CE (eds) The colonial Andes: tapestries and silverwork 1530-1830, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp 3–15Google Scholar
  50. Cutler HC (2001) Cultivated plants from Picuris. In: Blake LW, Cutler HC (eds) Plants from the Past. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, pp 16–36Google Scholar
  51. Cutler HC, Cardenas M (1947) Chicha, a native South American beer. Bot Mus Leafl Harv Univ 12:33–61Google Scholar
  52. Deagan KA (1989) The search for La Navidad Columbus’s 1492 settlement. In: Milanich JL, Milbrath S (eds) First encounters: Spanish explorations in the Caribbean and the United States. University of Florida Press/Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, pp 1492–1570Google Scholar
  53. Díaz del Castillo B (1953) [1567-75] The discovery and conquest of Mexico 1517-1521. In: E. Garrett (ed) Abridged by Alfred P. Maudslay. Mexico City: Ediciones Tolteca, Mariano Escobedo 218, México 17, D.FGoogle Scholar
  54. Dillehay TD, Rossen J, Andres TC, Williams DE (2007) Earliest evidence of peanut, cotton and squash farming found. Science 316:1890–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Elliot JH (1963) Imperial Spain: 1468–1716. Mentor Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Evans RJW (1979) The making of the habsburg monarchy, 1550–1700: an interpretation. Clarendon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Finan JJ (1950) Maize in the great herbals. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, MA With forward by Edgar AndersonGoogle Scholar
  58. Freidel D, Schele L, Parker J (1993) Maya cosmos: three thousand years on the Shaman's Path. William Morrow and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Freidel DA, Reilly FK (2009) The flesh of God: cosmology, food, and the origins of political power in ancient Southeastern Mesoamerica. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Multidisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 635–680Google Scholar
  60. Fuchs L (1978) [1543] New Kreüterbůch: in welchem nit allein die gantz Histori, das ist, Namen, Gestalt, Statt und Zeit der Wachsung, Natur, Krafft und Würckung, des meysten Theyls der Kreüter so in tëutschen vnnd andern Landen wachsen, mit dem besten Vleiss beschriben, sonder auch aller derselben Wurtzel, Stengel, Bletter, Blůmen, Samen, Frücht, und in summa die gantze Gestalt allso artlich vnd kunstlich abgebildet vnd contrafayt ist, das dessgleichen vormals nie gesehen, noch an tag kõen Durch den hochgelerten Leonhart Fuchsen, der Artzney Doctorn vnnd derselbigen zů Tübingen lesern. Mit dreyen nützlichen Registern. Facsimile reprint of the 1543 German edition Basel ed., printed by Michael Isingrin. Includes indexes. Verlegt von Ernst Battenberg, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  61. Fussell B (1992) The story of maize. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  62. Gadacz RR (1982) The language of Ethnohistory. Anthropologica 24(2):147–165Google Scholar
  63. Gerard J (1975) [1633] The Herbal or General History of Plants. The complete 1633 edn. revised by Thomas Johnson. Facsimile reprint of the ed. printed by Islip A. Norton J. Whitakers R London, under title: The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  64. Gerbi A (1985 [1975]) Nature in the New World. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA From Christopher Columbus to Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. Translated by J. MoyleGoogle Scholar
  65. Goldstein DJ, Coleman RC (2004) Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) Chicha production in the Central Andes. Econ Bot 58(4):523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haskin F (1913) The Panama canal. Doubleday, Page and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Herrera Casasús ML (1989) Presencía y esclavitud del Negro en la Huasteca. Editoríal Purrúa; Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  68. Hill JH (2006) The historical linguistics of maize cultivation in Mesoamerica and North America. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of maize: multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 631–645Google Scholar
  69. Homza LA (2006) The Spanish Inquisition, 1478–1614: an anthology of sources. Hackett Publishing Company, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  70. Hopkins NA (2006) The place of maize in Indigenous Mesoamerican Folk Taxonomies. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 611–622Google Scholar
  71. Huckell L (2006) Ancient maize in the American Southwest: What does it look like and what can it tell us. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 97–107Google Scholar
  72. Hyland S (2003) The Jesuit and the Incas: the extraordinary life of Padre Blas Valera, S.J. The University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  73. Hyslop J (1990) Inka settlement planning. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  74. Ife EW (1990) Introduction. In Christopher Columbus: Journal of the first Voyage. Edited and translated by E.W. Ife. Aris & Phillips Ltd, Warminster, England, pp. v-xxviGoogle Scholar
  75. Innes H (1969) The Conquistadores. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Jimenez Borja A (1953) La comida en el antiquo Perú. Revista de Museo Nacional 22:113–134Google Scholar
  77. Knapp S, Polaszek A, Watson M (2007) Spreading the word. Nature 446(15):261–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. La Barre W (1938) Native American beers. Am Anthropol 40:224–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Landa D de (1975) [1566] The Maya: Diego de Landa’s Account of the Affairs of Yucatán. Edited and translated by A. R. Pagden. J Philip O’Hara, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  80. Las Casas B de (1971) [1527-1565] History of the Indies, Translated and edited by A. Collard. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Layfield J (1995) [1598] Relación del viaje a Puerto Rico de la expedición de Sir George Clifford, tercer conde de Cumberland, escrita por el Reverendo Doctor John Layfield, capellán de la expedición. (Fragmentos) Año 1598, In: Cronicas de Puerto Rico: desde la Conquista Hasta Nuestros Días (1493-1595), E. Fernandez Mendez (compiled and edited). Editorial Universitaria. Puerto Rico, San JuanGoogle Scholar
  82. Lipp FJ (1991) The mixe of Oaxaca: religion, ritual, and healing. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  83. Long-Solís J (1986) Capsicum y cultura: La historia del chilli. D. F., Fondo de Cultura Economica, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  84. López de Gómara F (1943 [1554]) Historía de la conquista de Mexico, vol 1. Editorial Pedro Robredo, México D.FGoogle Scholar
  85. MacCormack S (2004) Religion and society in Inca and Spanish Peru. In: Phipps E, Hecht J, Martín CE (eds) The colonial andes: tapestries and silverwork 1530–1830, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. New Haven, Yale University Press, pp 101–112Google Scholar
  86. Madariaga S de (1947) The rise of the Spanish American empire. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. Maltby W (2002) The reign of Charles V. Palgrave Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. Mangelsdorf PC, Reeves RG (1939) The origin of Indian corn and its relatives. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 547 College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  89. Martire P. d’ Anghiera (1907 [1516]) De orbe novo de Pierre Martyr Anghiera. Les huit décades tr. du latin, avec notes et commentaires par Paul Gaffarel. E. Leroux, ParisGoogle Scholar
  90. McNeil CL (2006) Traditional Cacao Use in Modern Mesoamerica. In: McNeil CL (ed) Chocolate in Mesoamerica: a cultural history of Cacao. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, pp 341–366Google Scholar
  91. Memorias para la historia de Sinaloa. Carta Anua 1593. MS 227. University of California, Berkeley Bancroft Library. BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  92. Milanich JL, Milbrath S (eds) (1989) First encounters: Spanish explorations in the Caribbean and the United States, 1492–1570. University of Florida Press. Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FLGoogle Scholar
  93. Mitchem JM (1989) Artifacts of exploration: archaeological evidence from Florida. In: JL. Milanich, S. Milbrath (eds) First Encounters: Spanish explorations in the Caribbean and the United States, 1492-1570.University of Florida Press. Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL, pp 99–109Google Scholar
  94. Molina C de (El Cuzqueño) (1989) [ca. 1575]. Relación de los ritos y fábulas de los Ingas. In: Urbano H, Duvoils P (eds) Fábulas y mitos de los Incas. Crónicas de América series. Historia 16, Madrid, pp. 47–134Google Scholar
  95. Moore JD (1989) Pre-Hispanic beer in coastal Peru: technology and social context of prehistoric production. Am Anthropol 91:682–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Morris C (1979) Maize beer in the economics, politics, and religion of the Inca state. In: Gastineau C, Darby W, Turner T (eds) The role of fermented beverages in nutrition. Academic, New York, pp 21–34Google Scholar
  97. Morris C (1993) The wealth of a Native American state. Value, investment, and mobilization in Inka economy. In: Henderson J, Netherly PJ (eds) Configurations of Power. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 36–50Google Scholar
  98. Morris C, Thompson DE (1985) Huánuco pampa: an inca city and its hinterlands. Thames and Hudson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. Murra JV (1975 [1972]) El control vertical de un máximo de pisos ecológicos en los sociedades andinas. In: Murra JV (ed) Formaciones Económicas y Politicas del Mundo Andino. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima, pp 59–115Google Scholar
  100. Murra JV (1973) Rite and crop in the Inca State. In: DR Gross (ed) Peoples and cultures of South America. Natural History Press, Doubleday, Garden City NJ, pp 377–389Google Scholar
  101. Murra JV (1980) Economic Organization of the Inca State. JAI Press, Greenwich, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  102. Murra JV (1982) The mit’a obligation of ethnic groups to the Inca State. In: Collier G, Rosaldo R, Wirth J (eds) The Inca and Aztec States, 1400–1800. Academic, New York, pp 237–264Google Scholar
  103. Murua M de (1962 [1590]) Historia general del Perú, origen y descendencia de los Incas. Biblioteca Americana Vetus, MadridGoogle Scholar
  104. Newsom LA (1996) The population of the Amazon basin in 1492: a view from the Ecuadorian headwaters. Trans Inst Br Geogr 21(1):5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Newsom LA (2006) Caribbean maize: first farmers to Columbus. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 325–335Google Scholar
  106. Nicholson GE (1960) Chicha maize types and chicha manufacturing in Peru. Econ Bot 14:290–299Google Scholar
  107. Olmsted I (1993) Wetlands of Mexico. In: Whigham DF, Dykyjová D, Slavomil H (eds) Wetlands of the World: inventory, ecology, and management, Handbook of Vegetation Science, pt. 15/2. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 637–677Google Scholar
  108. Otero GA (1951) La piedra mágica. Instituto Indiginista Americano, Mexico D.FGoogle Scholar
  109. Parsons JR (2006) The last pescadores of chimalhuacán, mexico: an archaeological ethnography. Anthropological Papers Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Number 96Google Scholar
  110. Parsons JR (2009) The Pastoral Niche in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 108–136Google Scholar
  111. Parsons JR, Parsons M (1990) Maguey utilization in highland central Mexico: an archaeological ethnography, appendix by Sandra L. Dunavan. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, Number 96Google Scholar
  112. Pérez J (2005) The Spanish inquisition: a history. Yale University Press, Translated by J. Lloyd. New HavenGoogle Scholar
  113. Pizarro P (1978[1571]) Relación del Discubrimiento y Conquista del Perú. Pontífica Universidad Católica del Perú, LimaGoogle Scholar
  114. Pizarro P (1921[1571]) Relation of the discovery and conquest of the kingdoms of Peru. Translated & edited by P. Ainworth Means. The Cortés Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Rainey KD, Spielmann KA (2006) Protohistoric and contact period salinas pueblo maize: trend or departure. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 487–496Google Scholar
  116. Raven PH (2005) Transgenes in Mexican maize: desireability or inevitability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:13003–13004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Raymond JS, DeBoer WR (2006) Maize on the Move. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 337–342Google Scholar
  118. Rowe JH (1944) An introduction to the archaeology of Cuzco. Pap Peabody Mus Am Archaeol Ethnol 27(2):3–69Google Scholar
  119. Sachse F (2008) Over distant waters: origin places and creation in colonial k’iche’an sources. In: Staller JE (ed) Pre-Columbian landscapes of creation and origin. Springer, New York, pp 123–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sauer CO (1950) Cultivated plants of South and Central America. In: Steward JH (ed.) Handbook of South American Indians. Physical Anthropology, Linguistics and Cultural Geography of South American Indians, vol. 6. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, pp 487–543Google Scholar
  121. Sauer CO (1969) The Early Spanish Main. The University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  122. Schiebinger L (2004) Plants and empire: colonial bioprospecting in the atlantic World. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  123. Schiebinger L, Swan C (2005) Introduction. In: Schiebinger L, Swan C (eds) Colonial botany: science, commerce, and politics in the early modern World. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  124. Scholes FV, Roys RL (1968) The Maya chontal Indians of Acalan-Tixchel. a contribution to the history and ethnography of the yucatan peninsula. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman with the assistance of Eleanor B. Adams and Robert S. ChamberlainGoogle Scholar
  125. Schwartz SB (2000) Victors and vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico. Bedford/St. Martin’s, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  126. Gines de Sepulveda J, de Las Casas B (1975 [c. 1540]) Apología. In: Gines de Sepulveda J, de las Casas Bartolome F (eds) Traducción castellana de los textos originales latinos, introduccion, notas e indices por Angel Losada. Editorial Nacional, MadridGoogle Scholar
  127. Serra M, Lazcano JC (2009) The drink mescal its origins and ritual uses. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 137–156Google Scholar
  128. Siemens AH, Puleston DE (1972) Ridged Fields and associated features in Southern Campeche: new perspectives on the Lowland Maya. Am Antiq 37(7):228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Smalley J, Blake TM (2003) Sweet beginnings: stalk sugar and the domestication of maize. Curr Anthropol 44(5):675–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Spores R (1980) New World Ethnohistory and archaeology (1970–1980). Annu Rev Anthropol 9:575–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Staller JE (2003) An examination of the paleobotanical and chronological evidence for an early introduction of maize (Zea mays L.) into South America: a response to Pearsall. J Archaeol Sci 30(3):373–380Google Scholar
  132. Staller JE (2006a) An introduction to the histories of maize. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp xxi–xxvGoogle Scholar
  133. Staller JE (2008a) Introduction to Pre-Columbian landscapes of creation and origin. In: Staller JE (ed) Pre-Columbian landscapes of creation and origin. Springer, New York, pp 1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Staller JE (2009) Ethnohistoric sources on foodways, feasts and festivals in Mesoamerica. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 23–69Google Scholar
  135. Staller JE, Thompson RG (2002) A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the initial introduction of maize into coastal Ecuador. J Archaeol Sci 29(1):33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) (2006) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  137. Stross B (2006) Maize in word and image in Southeastern Mesoamerica. In: Staller JE, Tykot RH, Benz BF (eds) Histories of Maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize. Elsevier, San Diego, CA, pp 577–598Google Scholar
  138. Stross B (2009) This world and beyond: food practices and the social order in mayan religion. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 553–576Google Scholar
  139. Taube K (1996b) Lightning celts and corn fetishes: the Formative Olmec and the development of maize symbolism in Mesoamerica and the American Southwest. In: Clark JE, Pye ME (eds) Olmec art and archaeology in Mesoamerica. National Gallery of Art and Yale University Press, Washington, D.C, pp 297–337Google Scholar
  140. Tedlock D (1985) Popol Vuh. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  141. Thompson JES (1970) Maya history and religion. University of Oklahoma Press, NormanGoogle Scholar
  142. Tozzer AM (1907) A comparative study of the Mayas and the Lacandones. Archaeo- logical Institute of America, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  143. Traboulay DM (1994) Columbus and Las Casas. The conquest and christianization of America, 1492-1566. Lanham, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  144. Tudela J (1977) [1541] Relación de Michoacán. Relación de las ceremonias y ritos y población y gobierno de los indios de la Provincia de Michoacán: reproducción facsímil del Ms. ç.IV.5 de El Escorial; estudio preliminar por José Corona Núñez. México: Balsal EditoresGoogle Scholar
  145. Tuxill J, Reyes LA, Latournerie L, Cob V, Jarvis DI (2009) All maize is not equal: maize variety choices and mayan foodways in Rural Yucatan, Mexico. In: Staller JE, Carrasco MD (eds) Pre-Columbian foodways: interdisciplinary approaches to food, culture and markets in Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, pp 466–486Google Scholar
  146. Urton G (1985) Animal metaphors and the life cycle in an Andean community. In: Gary Urton (ed) Animal Myths and Metaphors in South America. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp 251–284Google Scholar
  147. Urton G (1990) The history of a myth: Pacariqtambo and the origin of the Inka. University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  148. Valera B (1968) 1594. Relación de las costumbres antiguas del Peru. With an introduction by F. Loayza, LimaGoogle Scholar
  149. Valcárcel LE (1946) Indian markets and fairs in Peru. In: Steward JH (ed) Handbook of South American Indians. The Andean civilizations, vol 2, Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 143. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C, pp 477–482Google Scholar
  150. Ward SAW, Prothero GW, Mordaunt S, Benians EA (1912) The Cambridge modern history atlas. London, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  151. Weatherwax P (1954) Indian corn in Old America. MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Wright SI, Vroh Bi I, Schroeder SI, Yamasaki M, Doebley JF, Mullen MD, Gaut BS (2005) The effects of artificial selection on the maize genome. Science 308:1310–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Xerex F de (1985) [1534] Verdaderas relación de la conquista del Perú, edited by C. Bravo. Historia 16. MadridGoogle Scholar
  154. Zevallos JMP (2005) The ethnohistory of Southern Veracruz. In: Sandstrom AR, García Valencía EH (eds) Native peoples of the Gulf Coast of Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 66–99Google Scholar
  155. Zuidema RT (1973) Kinship and ancestor cult in three Peruvian communities: Hernández Príncipe’s account in 1622. Bulletin, Institut Français d'Études Andines 2:16-23. Lima.Google Scholar
  156. Zuidema RT (2002) Inca religion: its foundations in the central Andean context. In: Sullivan LE (ed) Native Religions and Cultures of Central and South America. Continuum, London, pp 236–253Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe Field MuseumChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations