Biomimetics and Innovation
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In the discussions about the capacity for innovation and technological change, the importance of institutional factors was strongly emphasized. The concept of innovation systems, within which these processes of change take place, combines aspects of evolution as well as institutional economics (see, e.g., Edqvist 2001; Freeman 1987; Lundvall 1992; Nelson 1993). The focus on innovation systems and their framework requirements, that is, on the complex interplay of the stakeholders, with numerous recursion loops, was closely related to the rejection of linear phase models of the innovation process. Empirical comparisons have shown that institutional settings and stakeholder networks can differ among different economies and that this can have an impact on the macroeconomic success of innovation. Freeman (1987, 1) defined national innovation systems (NIS) as “the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whose activities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diffuse new technologies.”
KeywordsSolar Cell Innovation System Innovation Process Path Dependency Organic Solar Cell
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