Conclusions and Recommendations
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In the preceding chapters we have presented characteristics of turbulent flows in details. We have also seen a wide variety of methods that can be adopted to model turbulent flows, using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, from the simplest zero-equation model to the most complex Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux transport models. We have also seen the direct treatment of three-dimensional, instantaneous turbulent flow using the large eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation. We have shown that LES has a good potential as a design tool in engineering applications. We have also seen case studies of some representative turbulent flows covering a wide spectrum. In the present chapter we will summarize the important observations from the previous chapters. We will also present some guidelines for adopting a particular approach for turbulent flow modeling and simulation.