This chapter presents a widely used approach to model turbulent flows, i.e., to consider the time-averaged governing equations. It is shown that though this approach leads to a considerable simplification, an undesirable outcome is the closure problem, i.e., the number of unknowns exceeding the number of equations available. The closure problem sets the ground for a wide range and variety of RANS equations based turbulence models available in the literature.
Large Eddy Simulation Reynolds Stress Flow Property Closure Problem Turbulent Shear Stress
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