• Pleural empyema can be divided into three phases: a) Exudative b) Fibrinopurulent c) Organizing • Pleural empyema may be: a) Para- or postpneumonic b) Postoperative c) Posttraumatic d) Secondary to other intrathoracic or upper abdominal infections • Primary management of para- or postpneumonic empyemas is with antibiotics. Source control is a secondary measure whose aims are the evacuation of pus and full expansion of the lung; approaches to source control must be adapted to the stage of the disease. • The objective of source control in postresectional empyema is to close any bronchopleural fistula and reexpand the lung, or, after pneumectomy,to stabilize or obliterate the thoracic space.
KeywordsPleural Fluid Muscle Flap Source Control Tube Thoracostomy Bronchopleural Fistula
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