Methods for Controlled and Field Ozone Exposures of Forest Tree Species in North America

  • R. C. Musselman
  • B. A. Hale
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 127)


Research on the effects of pollutants on vegetation has concentrated primarily on agricultural crops. Pollutant effects on crops have been examined since the 1950s, after initial observations of oxidant stipple injury to field crops which were attributed to O3 (Richards et al. 1958; Heggestad and Middleton 1959). Research began with field observation and description of leaf injury, and duplication of injury symptoms with laboratory O3 fumigations. Early research examined cultivar differences in response to O3, and effects of O3-free (charcoal-filtered) air and antioxidant chemicals on the prevention of oxidant injury. Research on O3 effects on plants matured to studies of mechanisms of injury, and dose-response studies of pollutant effects on productivity. These studies often used chambers to control fumigation. Specific methodologies have been developed to study air pollution effects in laboratory, greenhouse, or field experimental settings. Experiments have been conducted on numerous crop species. Recent research has examined the effects of specific components of O3 exposure (peak concentration, duration, respite times [intervals when plants are not exposed to O3]) on plants during different stages of development. Research is continuing to determine the best way to characterize the O3 exposure parameter. Results of O3 fumigation-plant response studies, as well as the methods used to obtain them, have been recently reviewed (Lefohn 1992b).


Continuous Stir Tank Reactor Ozone Exposure Forest Tree Species Forest Response Branch Chamber 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Musselman
  • B. A. Hale

There are no affiliations available

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