Rheology Control Agents for Cosmetics

  • Isamu KanedaEmail author
Part of the Soft and Biological Matter book series (SOBIMA)


“Usage feeling” is one of the most important characteristics of cosmetics, particularly skin-care products. Because the usage feeling of cosmetics is strongly related to their rheological properties, the ingredients, which affect the rheological properties of the product, are key factors in the development of skin-care products. In this chapter, two types of novel rheology control agents for cosmetics that have been developed are described. The first is hydrophobically ethoxylated urethane, which contains a relatively large C24 hydrophobe. This telechelic polymer forms a transient network structure in aqueous systems. Because the transient network structure is due to physical interactions, it is easily destroyed and reconstructed. This interesting physical property creates a unique usage feeling for use in skin-care products. The second agent is a water-swellable microgel that was polymerized in a W/O microemulsion system. Although water-soluble polymers are widely used in cosmetics as viscosity thickeners, the thickeners often suffer a serious problem, so-called spinability, which is due to the entanglement of polymer chains. In contrast, microgels avoid such problems. The details of these rheology control agents, their syntheses, physicochemical properties, and rheological properties are reviewed.


Cosmetics Rheology control agent Telechelic polymers Microgels 


  1. 1.
    Alexandridis, P., and Yang, L. (2000) Micellization of polyoxyalkylene block copolymer in formamide. Macromolecules 33: 3382–3391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Annable T, Buscall R, Ettelaie R, Whittlestone D (1993) The rheology of solutions of associating polymers: comparison of experimental behavior with transient network theory. J. Rheol. 37 (4):695–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barmar, M., Ribitsch, V., Kaffashi, B., Barikani, M., Srreshtedari, Z., and Pfragner, J. (2004) Influence of prepolymers molecular weight on the viscoelastic properties of aqueous HEUR solution. Colloid Polym. Sci. 282:454–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barmar, M., Barikani, M., and Kaffashi, B. (2005) Steady shear viscosity study of various HEUR models with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic size. Colloids and Surfaces A 253:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barnes, H.A., Hutton, J.F., and Walters, K. (1991) An introduction to rheology ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bekker, M., Webber, G.V., and Louw, N.R. (2013) Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin. International J. Cosmetic Sci. 35:354–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brummer, R., and Godersky, S. (1999) Rheological studies to objectify sensations occurring when cosmetic emulsions are applied to the skin. Colloids and Surfaces A 152:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calvet, D., Collet, A., Viguier, M., Berret, J.-F., and Serero, Y. (2003) Perfluoalkyl end-capped poly (ethylene oxide). Synthesis, Characterization, and Rheological behavior in Aqueous Solution. Macromolecules 36:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fridrikh, S., Raquois, C., Tassin, J.F., and Rezaiguia, S. (1996) Rheological behavior of concentrated suspensions of soft spheres. J. Chim. Phys. 93:941–959Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gutowski, I.A., Lee, D., de Bruyn, J.R., and Frisken, B.J. (2012) Scaling and mesostructure of Carbopol dispersions. Rheol. Acta 51:441–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glass, J.E. (Ed.) Polymers in aqueous media: Performance through association. Advance in Chemistry Series ACS 1993, p248Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaffashi, B., Barmar, M., and Eyvani, J. (2005) The steady state and dynamic rheological properties of telechelic associative polymer solutions. Colloids and Surfaces A 254: 125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kaneda, I., Miyazawa, K., and Yanaki, T. (2001a) Japanese Patent 2001–114641Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaneda, I., Miyazawa, K., and Yanaki, T. (2001b) Japanese Patent 2001–114642Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaneda, I., Miyazawa, K., and Yanaki, T. (2001c) Japanese Patent 2001–115135Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kaneda, I., and Yanaki, T. (2002) Rheology of agar microgel dispersion. Nihon Reoroji Gakkaishi 30 (2):89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaneda, I., and Vincent, B. (2004) Swelling behaviour of PMMA-g-PEO microgel particles by organic solvents. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 274:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaneda, I., Sogabe, A., Nakajima H. (2004) Water-swellable polyelectrolyte microgels polymerized in an inverse microemulsion using a nonionic surfactant. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275: 450–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaneda, I., and Vincent, B. (2004) Swelling behavior of PMMA-g-PEO microgel particles by organic solvent. J. Colloid Interface Sci 274: 49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaneda, I., and Sogabe, A. (2005) Rheological properties of water swellable microgel polymerized in a confined space. Colloids and Surfaces A 270–271:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaneda, I. (2006) The yield stress of a soft and water swellable microgel aqueous suspension in semi-dilute regime. Nihon Reoroji Gakkaishi 34 (2):77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kaneda, I., Koga, T., and Tanaka, F. (2009) Time-dependent flow properties of transient hydrogels with temporal network junctions. Progr. Colloid Polym. Sci. 136:31–38Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kaneda, I., Koga, T., Tand anaka, F. (2012) Rheological properties of physical gel formed by hydrophobically modified urethane ethoxylate (HEUR) associative polymers in methanol-water mixtures. Rheol. Acta 51:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ketz, R.J., Prud’homme, R.K., Graessley, W.W. (1988) Rheology of concentrated microgel solutions. Rheol. Acta 27: 531–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koga, T., Tanaka. F., and Kaneda, I. (2009a) Stress growth in transient polymer networks under startup shear flow. Progr. Colloid Polym. Sci. 136:39–46Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koga, T., Tanaka, F., Kaneda, I., and Winnik, F.M. (2009b) Stress buildup under strat-up shear flows in self-assembled transient networks of thelechelic associating polymers. Langmuir 25 (15):8626–8638Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lukic, N., Jaksic, I., Krstonosic, V., Cekic, N., and Savic, S. (2012) A combined approach in characterization of an effective w/o hand cream: the influence of emollient on texture, sensorial and in vivo skin performance. International J. Cosmetic Sci. 34:140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ma, S., and Cooper S.L. (2001) Shear thickening in aqueous solution of hydrocarbon end-capped poly (ethylene oxide). Macromolecules 34:3294–3301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marrucci, G., Bhargava, S., and Cooper, S.L. (1993) Models of shear-thickening behavior in physically cross-linked networks. Macromolecules 26:6483–6488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mason, T.G., Bibette, J., and Weitz, D.A. (1995) Elasticity of compressed emulsions. Phys. Rev. Letters 75 (10): 2051–2054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ozkan, S., Gillece, T.W., Senak, L., and Moore, D.J. (2012) Characterization of yield stress and slip behaviors of skin/hair care gels using steady flow and LAOS measurements and their correlation with sensorial attributes. International J. Cosmetic Sci. 34:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Penfold, J., Staples, E., Tucker, I., and Cummins, P. (1997) The structure of nonionic micelles in less polar solvents. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 185:424–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Riberio, H.M., Morais, J.A., and Eccleston, G.M. (2004) Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers. International Cosmetic Sci. 26:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Saramito, P. (2009) A new elastoviscoplastic model based on the Herschel-Bulkley viscoplastic model. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 158:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tanaka, F. and Edwards, S.F. (1992) Viscoelastic properties of reversibly crosslinked polymer networks – Transient Network Theory. Macromolecules 25 (5): 1516–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tanaka F and Koga T (2006) Nonaffine transient network theory of associating polymer solutions. Macromolecules 39:5913–5920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tanaka, F., Koga, T., and Winnik, F.M. (2008) Competitive hydrogen bonds and cononsolvency of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)s in mixed solvents of water/methanol. Physical Rev. Letters 101:028302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang, S., Kislaliglu, M.S., and Breuer, M. (1999) The effect of rheological properties of experimental moisturizing creams/lotions on their efficacy and perceptual attributes. International Cosmetic Sci. 21:167–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Winnik, F.M., Ringsdorf, H., and Venzmer, J. (1990) Methanol-water as a co-nonsolvent system for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Macromolecules 23:2415–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Winnik, F.M., Ottaviani, M.F., Bossmann, S.H., Garcia-Garibay, M., and Turro, N.J. (1992) Cononsolvency of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) in mixed water-methanol solutions: A look at spin-labeled polymers. Macromolecules 25:6007–6017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wolfe, M.S., and Scopazzi, C. (1989) Rheology of swellable microgel dispersions: Influence of crosslink density. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 133:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshida, K., Nakamura, A., Nakajima, Y., Fukuhara, T., Inoue, H., and Kaneda, I. (2007) Use of associating polymers as multifunctional thickeners: Studies of their structure in aqueous solutions via NMR, QELS,fluorescence, and rheology measurements. IFSCC Magazine 10:35–39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and WellnessRakuno Gakuen UniversityEbetsuJapan

Personalised recommendations