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Glycoproteomics in Health and Disease

  • Weston B. StruweEmail author
  • Eoin F.J. Cosgrave
  • Jennifer C. Byrne
  • Radka Saldova
  • Pauline M. Rudd
Chapter

Abstract

The addition of oligosaccharides to proteins is a significant posttranslational modification that modulates protein structure, function and localization. Glycans are vital for development in all eukaryotes and are profoundly connected to a large number of human diseases, ranging from glycan genetic diseases to autoimmune disorders and cancer. Glycans present a difficult challenge in the analytical field because of the intricate dynamics of their synthesis as well as the complexity of the structures themselves. In addition to the role of glycans in development and disease, they are of great interest in the biotherapeutic industry where modification of glycosylation can significantly enhance therapeutic efficacy and biological activity in a range of glycoprotein products. However, glycosylation on a global scale in humans is yet to be fully appreciated as researchers are discovering that glycosylation is not only protein, cell or tissue specific, but is additionally influenced by individual genetics and environmental factors. Functional glycomics and glycoproteomics are emerging as a central field in systems biology and will continue to be a key focus in discerning health and disease.

Keywords

Biotherapeutics Cancer Glycoproteomics Glycosylation Systems biology 

Abbreviations

ADCC

antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity

AFP

α-fetoprotein

AGP

α1-acid glycoprotein

CCD

cross reactive carbohydrate determinant

CDG

congenital disorders of glycosylation

CE

capillary electrophoresis

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen

CHO

Chinese hamster ovary

CID

collision induced dissociation

DMB

1,2-diamino-4,5-methylene-dioxybenzene

EAATs

excitatory amino acid transporters

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

EPO

erythropoietin

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

ERT

enzyme replacement therapy

ESI

electrospray ionization

FcγR

Fc-gamma receptor

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

Fuc

fucose

FucT

α(1,6)-fucosyltransferse

Fuc-TIII

α(1,3/4)-fucosyltransferase

Gal

galactose

GalNAc

N-acetylgalactosamine

Gal-T

β(1,4)galactosyltransferase

Glc

glucose

GlcNAc

N-acetylglucosamine

GnT-I

N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I

GnT-III

N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III

GnT-V

N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V

GU

glucose unit

GWAS

genome-wide association study

HA

hemagglutinin

HCC

hepatocellular carcinomas

β-HCG

β-human chorionic gonadotrophin

HILIC

Hydrophilic interaction chromatography

HPLC

high performance liquid chromatography

IgG

immunoglobulin G

LacNAc

N-acetyllactosamine

Lex

Lewisx

LLO

lipid-linked oligosaccharide

LSD

lysosomal storage disease

MALDI

matrix assisted laser desorption ioziation

Man

mannose

MBL

mannose-binding lectin

MS

mass spectrometry

MSn

sequential mass spectrometry

Neu5Gc

N-glycolylneuraminic acid

Neu5Nac

N-acetylneuraminic acid

NK

natural killer

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

OST

oligosacchryltransferase

PGC

porous graphitized carbon

PNGase F

peptide-N-glycosidase F

PSA

prostate specific antigen

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RNase 1

ribonuclease 1

RP-HPLC

reverse phase-HPLC

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

sLea

sialyl Lewisa

sLey

sialyl Lewisy

ST3GalIV

β-galactoside α(2,3)-sialyltransferase

ST8Sia II

α(2,8)-sialyltransferase II

ST8Sia IV

α(2,8)-sialyltransferase IV

TGFβR

transforming growth factor-β receptor

TOF

time of flight

WAX

weak anion exchange

Xyl

xylose

Xyl-T

β(1,2)-xylosyltransferase

2-AB

2-aminobenzamide

2D-DIGE

2D difference gel electrophoresis

2-DE

2D gel electrophoresis

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weston B. Struwe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eoin F.J. Cosgrave
    • 1
  • Jennifer C. Byrne
    • 1
  • Radka Saldova
    • 1
  • Pauline M. Rudd
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute for Bioprocessing Research and Training, Dublin-Oxford Glycobiology GroupConway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, University College DublinDublinIreland

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