Climate Change Policy and Legislation in Brazil
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The starting point of this chapter is an overview of the common obligations for all the Parties established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Article 4.1. These obligations encompass a set of measures to be taken by a responsible State, under normal circumstances, through the adoption of legislations and administrative control, as well as other available means, with a view to respecting the obligations formulated under international law, which is close to the idea of “due diligence”. Moving from the abstract to the concrete, the chapter also focuses on recent policies and legislation on climate change adopted in Brazil, which are fundamental for the implementation of commitments under the UNFCCC. These new developments, including the voluntary quantified goal for reducing emissions announced by Brazil in 2009, encapsulated in its National Policy on Climate Change, demonstrates that the country has moved from “due diligence” measures, with a view to respecting the obligations formulated under international law, towards the goal for real contribution to the combat to climate change.