Advertisement

The ICE-3G Model of Late Pleistocene Deglaciation: Construction, Verification, and Applications

  • W. R. Peltier
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (ASIC, volume 334)

Abstract

A refined model of late Pleistocene deglaciation has been constructed by employing a large set (192) of 14C controlled time series of relative sea level change from sites that were covered by ice at Würm-Wisconsin maximum. The RSL histories at these sites are predicted using a theoretical model of post-glacial rebound with an assumed known mantle viscosity and the ice thickness variations are adjusted in order to achieve a best fit to the observations. The global validity of this model is confirmed by comparing the predictions of theory with observations for 200 RSL time series from non-ice-covered sites. The ICE-3G model constructed in this way has proven itself to be very effective in a number of applications, notably in the solution of the inverse problem for mantle viscosity (see the paper by Mitrovica and Peltier in these proceedings) and in analysis of the extent to which tide gauge data on secular sea level change are contaminated by the influence of the glacial isostatic adjustment process. Recent results by Bard et al. (1990) on the calibration of the 14C timescale have proven to provide very important constraints on the validity of the new model.

Keywords

Tide Gauge Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Tide Gauge Record Tide Gauge Data Mantle Viscosity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Backus, G.E., 1967. Converting vector and tensor equations to scalar equations in spherical co-ordinates. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 13, 71–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balling, N„ 1980. The land uplift in Fennoscandia, gravity field anomalies and isostasy. In. N.-A. Mörner (ed.) Earth Rheology Isostasy and Eustasy. New York: Wiley, pp. 297–321.Google Scholar
  3. Bard, Edouard, Hemlin, Bruno, Fairbanks, Richard G., and Zindler, Alan, 1990. Calibration of 14C over the last 80,000 years using U/Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry on Barbados coral. Nature, 345, pp. 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chapell, J. and Shackleton, N.J. 1986. Oxygen isotopes and Sea Level. Nature, 324, pp. 137–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, M.K., Eanes, R.J., Shum, C.K., Schutz, B.E., and Tapley, B.D., 1989. Temporal variations in low degree harmonics from Starlette orbit analysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 393–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, J.A., Farrell, W.E. and Peltier, W.R., 1978. Global changes in postglacial sea level: a numerical calculation. Quat. Res., 9, 265–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Currot, D.R., 1966. Earth deceleration from ancient solar eclipses. Astron. J., 71, 264–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fairbanks, Richard G., 1989. A 17,000 year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Yonger Dryas event and deep ocean circulation. Nature, 342, 637–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Farrell, W.E., and Clark, J.A. 1976. On postglacial sea level. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 647–667.Google Scholar
  10. Gilbert, F. and Dziewonski, A.M. 1975. An application of normal mode theory to retrieval of structural parameters and source mechanisms from seismic spectra. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A., 278, 187–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haskell, N.A., 1935. The motion of a viscous fluid under a surface load. I. Physics (N.Y.), 6, 265–269.Google Scholar
  12. Haskell, N.A., 1937. The viscosity of the asthenosphere, Am. J. of Sc., 33, 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitrovica, J.X., and Peltier, W.R., 1989. Pleistocene déglaciation and the global gravity field. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 13651–13671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitrovica, J.X., and Peltier, W.R., 1990a. A complete theory for the inversion of glacial isostatic adjustment data. Geophys. J. Int., in press.Google Scholar
  15. Mitrovica, J.X., and Peltier, W.R., 1990b. On postglacial geoid subsidence over the equatorial oceans. J. Geophys. Res., submitted.Google Scholar
  16. Pearson, G.W., Pilcher, J.R., Billie, M.G.I., Corbett, D.M., and Qua, F., 1986. High preceision 14C measurements of Irish Oaks to show the natural 14C variations from AD 1840 to 5210 BC. Radiocarbon, 28, 911–934.Google Scholar
  17. Peltier, W.R., 1974. The impulse response of a Maxwell earth. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phvs., 12, 649–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peltier, W.R., 1976. Glacial isostatic adjustment - II. The inverse problem. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 46, 669–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Peltier, W.R., 1983. Constraint on deep mantle viscosity from LAGEOS acceleration data. Nature, 304, 434–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peltier, W.R., 1985. The LAGEOS constraint on deep mantle viscosity: results from a new normal mode method for the inversion of viscoelastic relaxation spectra, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 9411–9421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peltier, W.R., 1988a. Global sea level and earth rotation. Science, 240, 895–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peltier, W.R., 1988b. Lithospheric thickness, Antarctic deglacition history, and ocean basin discretization effects in a global model of postglacial sea level change: A summary of some sources of non-uniqueness. Quat. Res., 29, 93–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peltier, W.R., 1989. Mantle viscosity. In Mantle Convection (W.R. Peltier, ed.) pp. 389–478, Gordan and Breach. New York.Google Scholar
  24. Peltier, W.R. and Andrews, J.T., 1976. Glacial isostatic adjustment – I: the forward problem. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 46, 605–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peltier, W.R., Farrell, W.T. and Clark, J.A., 1978. Glacial isostasy and realtive sea level: a global finite element model. Tectonophysics, 50, 81–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Peltier, W.R., and Tushingham, A.M., 1989. Global sea level rise and the greenhouse effect: might they be connected? Science, 244, 806–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peltier, W.R. and Tushingham, A.M., 1990. The influence of glacial isostatic adjustment on tide gauge measurements of secular sea level change. J Geophys. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  28. Platzman, G.W., 1971. Ocean tides and related waves. In W.H. Reid (ed.), Mathematical Problems in the Geophysical Sciences. A.M.S. Providence R.I., 239–291.Google Scholar
  29. Rubincam, D.P., 1984. Postglacial rebound observed by LAGEOS and the effective viscosity of the lower mantle. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 1077–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schytt, V., Hoppe, G., Blake, W. Jr., and Grosswald, M.G., 1968. The extent of the Würm glaciation in the European Arctic. Internat. Assoc. of Scientific Hydrology, IUGG, publ. 79, pp. 207–216.Google Scholar
  31. Shackleton, N.J., Berger, A., and Peltier, W.R., 1990. An alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene timescale based on ODP site 677. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, in press.Google Scholar
  32. Stuiver, M., Pearson, G.W., and Braziunas, T.F., 1986. Radiocarbon age calibration of marine samples back to 9000 cal. yr. bp. Radiocarbon, 28, 980–1021.Google Scholar
  33. Tushingham, A.M. and Peltier, W.R., 1990a. ICE-3G: A new global model of late Pleistocene deglaciation based upon geophysical predictions of post-glacial relative sea level change. J. Geophys. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  34. Tushingham, A.M. and Peltier, W.R., 1990b. Validation of the ICE-3G model of Würm-Wisconsin deglaciation using a global data base of realtive sea level histories. J. Geophys. Res., submitted.Google Scholar
  35. Vincente, R.D. and Yumi, S., 1970. Revised values (1941–1961) of the co-ordinates of the pole referred to the CIO. Publ. int. Latit. Obs. Mizusawa, 7, 109–112.Google Scholar
  36. Walcott, R.I., 1970. Isostatic response to the loading of the crust in Canada. Can. J. Earth Sci., 7 716–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu, P., and Peltier, W.R., 1982. Viscous gravitational relaxation. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 70, 435–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu, P., and Peltier, W.R., 1983. Glacial isostatic adjustment and the free air gravity anomaly as a constraint on deep mantle viscosity. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 74, 377–449.Google Scholar
  39. Wu, P., and Peltier, W.R., 1984. Pleistocene déglaciation and the earth’s rotation: a new analysis. Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc., 76, 753–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yoder, C.F., Williams, J.G., Dickey, J.O., Schutz, B.E., Eanes, R.J., and Tapley, B.D., 1983. Secular variation of the earth’s gravitational harmonic J2 coefficient from Lageos and nontidal acceleration of earth rotation. Nature, 303, 757–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. R. Peltier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations