Walker’s Deliberative Approach in a Small-scale Project: The SPIN-case

  • Ellen van den Berg


This chapter describes the application of Walker’s deliberation approach in a small-scale design project. It highlights the way an individual designer may generate, articulate and test design options and decisions. Two major strategies are discussed. Firstly, the grounding of design options in relevant literature and confront preliminary design decisions with expert opinions. Secondly, the use various formative evaluations in the deliberation process. The main conclusion of this chapter is that Walker’s approach is, with some modifications, applicable in a design project in which the individual designer has the ultimate responsibility for the decisions made.


Deliberative approach Curriculum development Formative evaluation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R.D. and Mitchener, C.P., 1994, Research on science teacher education, In D.L. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning, 3–44, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Ben-Peretz, M., 1990, The teacher-curriculum encounter, State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  3. Berg E., Van den, 1996, Effects of inservice education on implementation of elementary science, Doctoral dissertation, University of Twente, Enschede.Google Scholar
  4. Duit, R. and Treagust, D., 1995, Students’ conceptions and constructivist teaching, In Fraser, B.J. and Walberg, H.J. (Eds.), Improving science education, 46–70, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Eisner, E.W., 1979, The educational imagination, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Feiman-Nemser, S., 1990, Teacher preparation: Structural and conceptual alternatives, In Houston, W.R. (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education, 212–233), Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Flagg, B.N., 1990, Formative evaluation for educational technologies, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  8. Harlen, W., 1985, Science education: Primary-school programmes, In Husén, T. and Postlethwaite, T.N. (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education, 4456–4461, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  9. Joyce, B. and Showers, B., 1980, Improving inservice training: The messages of research, Educational Leadership, 37, 379–385.Google Scholar
  10. Joyce, B. and Showers, B., 1988, Student achievement through staff development, Longman, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Louden, W. and Wallace, J., 1994. Knowing and teaching science: The constructivist paradox. International Journal of Science Education, 16, 649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Marsh, C. and Willis, G., 1995. Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  13. Terlouw C., Feteris A., Martens, H.L.M., 1992, Onderwijskundig ontwerpen revisited: een kritische analyse Van het OKT-model [Educational design revisited: A critical analysis of the OKT-model], University of Twente, Enschede.Google Scholar
  14. Tulder M., van, Roelofs E., Veenman S., Voeten, M., 1992, Effecten Van nascholing op het onderwijsgedrag Van leerkrachten [Effects of inservice education on teachers’ behavior], Pedagogische Studiën, 69, 99–111.Google Scholar
  15. Walker, D.F., 1971, A study of deliberation in three curriculum projects, Curriculum Theory Network, 7, 118–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Walker, D.F., 1990, Fundamentals of curriculum, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego.Google Scholar
  17. Walker, D.F., 1992, Methodological issues in curriculum research, In Jackson, P. (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum, 98–118, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Wallace, J. and Louden, W., 1992, Science teaching and teachers’ knowledge: Prospects for reform of elementary classrooms, Science Education, 76, 507–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Watts, M. (1994). Constructivism, re-constructivism and task-oriented problem-solving. In P. Fensham, R. Gunstone & R. White (Eds.), The content of science:A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning (pp. 39–59). Falmer Press, London.Google Scholar
  20. Yeany, R.H. and Padilla, M.J., 1986, Training science teachers to utilize better teaching strategies. A research synthesis, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen van den Berg
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TwenteThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations