Advertisement

Conclusions

Tourism-Migration Relationships
  • C. Michael Hall
  • Allan M. Williams
Chapter
Part of the The GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 65)

Abstract

Although mobility has recently emerged as a key concept in the social sciences (e.g. Bauman, 1998; Williams and Kaltenborn, 1999; Urry, 2000; Williams and Hall, 2000, Chapter One), the significance of tourism as a component of the migrant experience has received relatively little attention in the mainstream migration literature. For example, Vertovec and Cohen’s (1999) introduction to key readings on migration, diaspora and transnationalism, which may be regarded as an exemplar of much recent migration research, fails to acknowledge the significant role of tourism in contemporary migration processes. Nevertheless, the key elements which affect the triadic relationship between migration, diaspora and transnationalism are as significant to the flow and movement of tourists as they are to the flow of migrants:

  • abandonment of controls on exit, although increasing entry controls;

  • growth of diasporic populations anchored socially, culturally or physically neither at their places of origin nor at their places of destination;

  • transnationalism of migrant communities cemented by global spanning networks.

Keywords

Tourism Industry International Tourism Tourism Research World Tourism Organisation Retirement Migration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, P.A. and Adler, P. (1999) Transcience and the postmodern self: The geographic mobility of resort workers, The Sociological Quarterly 40 (1), 31–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldassar, L. (1995) Migration as transnational interaction: Italy re-visited, Con Vivio 1 (2), 114–126.Google Scholar
  3. Baldassar, L. (1997) Home and away: migration, the return visit and ‘transnational identity’, in I. Ang and M. Symonds (eds), Communal Plural: Home, Displacement, Belonging, RCIS, Sydney, pp. 69–94.Google Scholar
  4. Baldassar, L. (1998) The return visit as pilgrimage: secular redemption and cultural renewal in the migration process, in E. Richards and J. Templeton (eds), The Australian Immigrant in the 20 Century: Searching Neglected Sources, Division of Historical Studies, Research School of the Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 127–156.Google Scholar
  5. Baldassar, L. (1999) Marias and marriage: ethnicity, gender and sexuality among Italo-Australian youth in Perth, Journal of Sociology 35 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauman, Z. (1998) Globalization: The Human Consequences, Polity Press, London. Bianchi, R.V. (2000) Migrant tourist-workers: exploring the ‘contact zones’ of post-industrial tourism, Current Issues in Tourism 3 (2): 107–137.Google Scholar
  7. Bishop, R., and Robinson, L.S. (1998) Night Market: Sexual Cultures and the Thai Economic Miracle, London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Brein, H. and David, K. (1971) Intercultural communication and the adjustment of the sojourner, Psychological Bulletin 76 (3), 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Church, A. (1982) Sojourner adjustment, Psychological Bulletin 91, 540–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clifford, J. (1997) Routes,Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Coppock, J.T. (ed.) (1977a) Second Homes Curse or Blessing? Pergamon Press, Oxford. Cuba, L. (1989) Retirement to vacationland, Generations Spring, 63–67.Google Scholar
  12. Cuba, L. and Longino, C.F. (1991) Regional retirement migration: the case of Cape Cod, Journal of Gerontology Social Sciences 46 (1): 533–542.Google Scholar
  13. Deller, S. (1995) Economic impact of retirement migration, Economic Development Quarterly 9, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duval, D. (2001) When hosts become guests: Return visits and transnational identities among members of the Eastern Caribbean Community, Toronto, Canada, unpublished PhD dissertation, York University, Toronto, Ontario.Google Scholar
  15. Fawcett, J.T. (1989) Networks, linkages, and migration systems, International Migration Review 23 (3): 671–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Furnham, A. (1988) The adjustment of sojourners, in Y.Y. Kim and W.B. Gudykunst (eds), Cross-cultural Adaptation: Current Approaches, Sage, Newbury Park, pp. 2–62.Google Scholar
  17. Gartner, W.C. (1987) Environmental impacts of recreational home developments, Annals of Tourism Research 14, 38–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gergen, K.J. (1991) The Saturated Self, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Haas, W.H. and Serow, W.J. (1997) Retirement migration decision making: life course mobility, sequencing the events, social ties and alternatives, Journal of Community Development Society 28 (1): 116–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall, C.M. (2001) Territorial economic integration and globalisation, in C. Cooper and S. Wahab (eds), Globalisation and Tourism, Routledge, London, pp. 22–44.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, C.M. and Kearsley, G. (2001) Tourism in New Zealand: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  22. Halstrup, K. and Olwig, K.F. (1997) Introduction, in K.F. Olwig and K. Halstrup (eds), Saving Culture: The Shifting Anthropological Object, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  23. Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoggart, K. and Buller, H. (1995a) British home owners and housing change in rural France, Housing Studies 10 (2), 179–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoggart, K. and Buller, K. (1995b) Retired British home owners in rural France, Ageing and Society 15, 325–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Human Rights Watch (1999) Trafficking, http://www.hrw.org/about/projects/traffcamp/intro.html
  27. Jaakson, R. (1986) Second-home domestic tourism, Annals of Tourism Research 13, 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. King, B. (1994) What is ethnic tourism? An Australian perspective, Tourism Management 15 (3), 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. King, R., Warnes, A.M. and Williams A.M. (2000) Sunset Lives: British Retirement Migration to the Mediterranean, Berg, London.Google Scholar
  30. Martin, J. N. (1987) The relationship between student sojourner perceptions of intercultural competencies and previous sojourn experience, International Journal of Intercultural Relations 11: 337–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsui, Y. (1999) Women in the New Asia, London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  32. McHugh, K.E. (1990) Seasonal migration as a substitute for, or precursor to, permanent migration, Research and Aging 12 (2): 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Müller, D.K. (1999) German Second Home Owners in the Swedish Countryside: On the Internationalization of the Leisure Space,European Tourism Research Institute, Östersund.Google Scholar
  34. Ralph, E. (2000) Oppose the Trafficking of Women and Children, Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs by Regan E. Ralph, Executive Director Women’s Rights Division, Human Rights Watch, International Trafficking of Women and Children, February 22, 2000.Google Scholar
  35. Rosenfried, S. (1997) `Global sex slavery’, San Francisco Examiner 6 April.Google Scholar
  36. Ryan, C. and Hall, C.M. (2001) Sex Tourism: Travels in Liminality, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Tölöyan, K. (1991) The nation-state and its others: in lieu of a preface, Diaspora 1 (1), 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schiller, N.G., Basch, L. and Blanc-Szanton, C. (1992) Transnationalism: a new analytic framework for understanding migration, Annals New York Academy of Sciences 645, 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Urry, J. (2000) Sociology Beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  40. Vertovec, S. and Cohen, R. (1999) Introduction, in S. Vertovec and R. Cohen (eds), Migration, Diasporas and Transnationalism, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. xiii-xxviiiGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams, A.M. and Balaz, V. (2000) Tourism in Transition: Economic Change in Central Europe, I. B. Tauris, London.Google Scholar
  42. Williams, A. M. and Hall, C.M. (2000) Tourism and migration: new relationships between production and consumption’, Tourism Geographies: International Journal of Place, Space and the Environment 2 (3), 5–27.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, D.R. and Kaltenborn, B.P. (1999) Leisure places and modernity: the use and meaning of recreational cottages in Norway and the USA, in D. Crouch (ed.), leisure/tourism geographies: practices and geographical knowledge, Routledge, London, pp. 214–230.Google Scholar
  44. World Tourism Organisation (WTO) (1996) International Tourism Statistics, World Tourism Organisation, Madrid.Google Scholar
  45. World Tourism Organisation (WTO) (2001) Millennium Tourism Boom in 2001, Press Release 31 January, World Tourism Organisation, Madrid.Google Scholar
  46. World Tourism Organisation (WTO) (2001) WTO Long-Term Forecast Tourism 2020 Vision, World Tourism Organisation, Madrid.Google Scholar
  47. World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) (2001) Demographic Trends & Economic Research Lead International Tourism Conferences, WTTC Press Release, May 7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Michael Hall
    • 2
  • Allan M. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of ExeterDevonEngland
  2. 2.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations