What Is a Hybrid Regime?
- 201 Downloads
After decades of proliferation of democracy around the world as a part of the ‘Third Wave’, by the early 2000s, the democratization process stalled in many countries and a new form of governance emerged in some countries either by choice or by default. This new form, while having some democratic institutions, is essentially authoritarian in its nature. It became evident to researchers that these regimes are not in transition. They are neither subtypes of autocracy nor of democracy, but instead are a regime type of their own. They are called hybrid regimes. This chapter traces the emergence of the concept of hybrid regime, explores its defining features, and examines the spread of such regimes around the world.
KeywordsDemocratization Transition paradigm Third wave Hybrid regime
- Alvarez, Mike, Jose Antonio Cheibub, Fernando Limogni, and Adam Przeworski. 1996. “Classifying Political Regimes.” Studies in Comparative International Development 31 (2): 3–36.Google Scholar
- Bunce, Valerie, and Sharon Wolchik. 2008. “Mixed Regimes in Postcommunist Eurasia: Tipping Democratic and Tipping Authoritarian.” Workshop on “Democratization in European Former Soviet Republics: Limits, Obstacles and Perspectives.” Florence: Workshop on “Democratization in European Former Soviet Republics: Limits, Obstacles and Perspectives.” June 13.Google Scholar
- Dahl, Robert A., Ian Shapiro, and José Antonio Cheibub. 2003. The Democracy Sourcebook. Boston: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Dahl, Robert. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven and London: Tale University Press.Google Scholar
- Diamond, Larry Jay. 2011. “Democracy’s Third Wave Today.” Current History 110 (739): 299–307.Google Scholar
- Diamond, Larry Jay, Juan José Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset. 1989. Democracy in Developing Countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
- EIU, Economist Intelligence Unit. 2016. Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://www.yabiladi.com/img/content/EIU-Democracy-Index-2015.pdf.
- Finer, Samuel E. 1970. Comparative Government. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
- Freedom House. 2013. Freedom In The World 2013: Democratic Breakthrough In The Balance. Washington, DC: Freedom House.Google Scholar
- Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political institutions under dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
- Kilinc, Faith Resul. 2017. What we see in Venezuela is the faith of hybrid regimes. August 27. Accessed December 10, 2018. http://foreignpolicynews.org/2017/08/28/see-venezuela-faith-hybrid-regimes/.
- Linz, Juan. 1975. “Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes.” In Handbook of Political Science, edited by Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby, 184–85. Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- O’Donnel, Guillermo, and Phillippe Schmitter. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
- Ottaway, Marina. 2003a. Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
- Robertson, Graeme B. 2010. The Politics of Protest in Hybrid Regimes: Managing Dissent in Post-Communist Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Sartori, Giovanni. 1987. The Theory of Democracy Revisited. London: Chatham House Publications.Google Scholar
- Schedler, Andreas. 2006. Electoral Authoritarianism – The Dynamics of Unfree Competition. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar