Mechanisms of Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Their Management Strategies in Fruit Crops

  • J. SatishaEmail author
  • R. H. Laxman
  • K. K. Upreti
  • K. S. Shivashankara
  • L. R. Varalakshmi
  • M. Sankaran


Fruit cultivation is one of the remunerative enterprises in the present situation as it not only provides nutritional security along with vegetables, but also helps to create lot of employment opportunities in addition to increase the income of the fruit growers. Though we produce large quantity of fruits, still productivity of most of the fruit crops are far inferior compared to other developed countries. This may be attributed to several abiotic stresses encountered at critical stages of fruit cultivation. These abiotic stresses are more aggravated in recent years due to climate change which is clearly visible in terms of increased frequency of such stresses, their intensity, and duration. Environmental stresses such as salinity, water deficiency, high water level, cold weather, and low/high temperature affect plant growth and decreases horticultural crop’s productivity worldwide. It is important to improve stress tolerance of the crop plant to increase crop yield under stress conditions and reduce the yield gaps. Drought and salinity stress can cause a variety of symptoms common to other major stresses such as light, heat, and nutrient deficiency and the symptoms are very specific to time and geographical location. In many of the fruit crops, there are several combinations of mechanisms which can help to tolerate most of these stresses. Since, abiotic stress tolerance in most of the crops is controlled by multigenes; it is very difficult to understand the stress tolerance at molecular level. Crops have evolved several mechanisms to overcome such abiotic stresses through various morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Understanding such mechanisms may help in developing varieties which are tolerant to such stresses either through conventional breeding methods or by nontraditional methods. However, several strategies have been developed from management view point to cope up with stresses and maintain yield and quality of horticultural produce. These stresses may be alleviated by altering the pruning time to avoid stress situations at critical stages of growth. Use of some chemicals like antitranspirants, osmoprotectants, biofertilizers, practice of mulching, etc. are important practices to be followed to alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. Use of drought, salt, and flood tolerant rootstocks seems to be a good strategy to overcome the ill effects of those stresses. The advanced irrigation methods like partial root zone drying need to be implemented under limited water conditions. Use of some microbial inoculants is also reported to offer some degree of stress tolerance in certain fruit crops.


Fruit crops Abiotic stresses Physio-biochemical mechanisms Water use efficiency Molecular mechanisms Stress management Vegetables Adaptation options Management strategies High temperature Deficit moisture stress Excess moisture stress Multiple stresses 


  1. Afzal Z, Howton TC, Sun Y, Mukhtar M (2016) The role of aquaporins in plant stress responses. J Dev Biol 4:9. Scholar
  2. Agaoglu YS, Ergul A, Aras S (2004) Molecular characterization of salt stress in grape vine cultivars (Vitis vinifera L ) and rootstocks. Vitis 43:107–110Google Scholar
  3. Alguacil MM, Díaz-Pereira E, Caravaca F, Fernández DA, Roldán A (2009) Increased diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a long-term field experiment via application of organic amendments to a semiarid degraded soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4254–4263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Khayri JM (2002) Growth, proline accumulation and ion content in sodium chloride stressed callus of date palm. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:79–82. Scholar
  5. Amri E, Mirzaei M, Moradi M, Zare K (2011) The effects of spermidine and putrescine polyamines on growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv ‘Rabbab’) in salinity circumstance. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem 3(3):43–49Google Scholar
  6. Anjum MA (2008) Effect of NaCl concentrations in irrigation water on growth and polyamine metabolism in two citrus rootstocks with different levels of salinity tolerance. Acta Physiol Plant 30:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anjum M (2011) Effect of exogenously applied spermidine on growth and physiology of citrus rootstock Troyer citrange under saline conditions. Turk J Agric For 35:43–53Google Scholar
  8. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216. Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Harris JC (2004) Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci 166(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey-Serres J, Voesenek LACJ (2008) Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:313–339CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Balbi V, Devoto A (2008) Jasmonate signalling network in Arabidopsis thaliana: crucial regulatory nodes and new physiological scenarios. New Phytol 177:301–318CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bananuka JA, Rbaihayo PR, Tenywa MM (1999) Reactions of Musa genotypes to drought stress. Afr Crop Sci J 7:333–339Google Scholar
  13. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (2008) Climate change and water. Technical paper of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Intergovernmental panel on climate change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  14. Bidabadi SS, Mahmood M, Baninasab B, Ghobadi C (2012) Influence of salicylic acid on morphological and physiological responses of banana (Musa acuminata cv. ‘Berangan’, AAA) shoot tips to in vitro water stress induced by polyethylene glycol. Plant Omics 5(1):33–39Google Scholar
  15. Bol JF, Linthorst HJM, Cornelissen BJC (1990) Plant pathogenesis-related proteins induced by virus infection. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28:113–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boudsocq M, Willmann MR, McCormack M, Lee H, Shan L, He P et al (2010) Differential innate immune signalling via Ca(2+) sensor protein kinases. Nature 464:418–422. PMID: 20164835CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Bray EA, Bailey-Serres J, Weretilnyk E (2000) Responses to abiotic stresses. In: Gruissem W, Buchannan B, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. ASPP, Rockville, pp 1158–1249Google Scholar
  18. Bright J, McAlister S, Renfre R (2001) Rootstock effects on mango productivity. Horticulture technical annual report 2000–2001Google Scholar
  19. Brossa R, Lopez-Carbonell M, Jubany-Marı T, Alegre L (2011) Interplay between abscisic acid and jasmonic acid and its role in water-oxidative stress in wild-type, ABA-deficient, JA-deficient, and ascorbate-deficient Arabidopsis plants. J Plant Growth Regul 30:322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bybordi A (2012) Study effect of salinity on some physiologic and morphologic properties of two grape cultivars. Life Sci J 9:1092–1101Google Scholar
  21. Calzadilla PI, Gazquez A, Maiale SJ, Ruiz OA, Benardina MA (2014) Polyamines as indicators and modulators in the abiotic stress in plants. In: Anjum NA, Gill SS, Gill R (eds) Plant adaptation to environmental changes. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Carbonell-Bejerano P, Santa Maria E, Torres-Perez R, Royo C, Lijavetzky D, Bravo G, Aguirreolea J, Sanchez-Diaz M, Antolín M, Martinez-Zapater J (2013) Thermo tolerance responses in ripening berries of vitis vinifera L. Cv Muscat Hamburg. Plant Cell Physiol 54(7):200–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Champ KI, Febres VJ, Moore GA (2007) The role of CBF transcriptional activators in two Citrus species (Poncirus and Citrus) with contrasting levels of freezing tolerance. Physiol Plant 129:529–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chan-Schaminet KY, Baniwal SK, Bublak D, Nover L, Scharf KD (2009) Specific interaction between tomato HsfA1 and HsfA2 creates hetero-oligomeric superactivator complexes for synergistic activation of heat stress gene expression. J Biol Chem 31:20848–20857. Scholar
  25. Chen L, Song YU, Li S, Zhang L, Zou C, Yu D (2012) The role of WRKY transcription factors in plant abiotic stresses. Biochem Biophys Acta 1819:120–128PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi YJ, Hur YY, Jung SM, Kim SH, Noh JHM, Park SJ, Park KS, Yun HK (2013) Transcriptional analysis of Dehydrin1 genes responsive to dehydrating stress in grapevines. Hort Environ Biotechnol 54:272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chung E, Kim KM, Lee JH (2013) Genome-wide analysis and molecular characterization of heat shock transcription factor family in Glycine max. J Genet Genomics 40:127–135CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Clemente HS, Marler TE (1996) Drought stress influences gas-exchange responses of papaya leaves to rapid changes in irradiance. Am Soc Hortic Sci 121:292–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Colmer TD, Voesenek LACJ (2009) Flooding tolerance: suites of plant traits in variable environments. Funct Plant Biol 36:665–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dayal V, Kumar Dubey A, Prakash Awasthi O, Pandey R, Dahuja A (2014) Growth, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and nutrient accumulation in Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L) grafted on different rootstocks under NaCl stress. Plant Knowl J 3(1):15–225390. Southern Cross Publishing Group ISSN: 2200-. Australia EISSN: 2200–5404Google Scholar
  31. De la Hera ML, Romero P, Gómez-Plaza E, Martinez A (2007) Is partial root-zone drying an effective irrigation technique to improve water use efficiency and fruit quality in field-grown wine grapes under semiarid conditions? Agric Water Manag 87:261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Delaunois B, Colby T, Belloy N, Conreux A, Harzen A, Baillieul F, Clement C, Schmidt J, Jeandet P, Cordelier S (2013) Large-scale proteomic analysis of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid reveals mainly stress-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes. BMC Plant Biol 13:24. Scholar
  33. Dos Santos TP, Lopes CM, Rodrigues ML, De Souza CR, Silva JR, Maroco JP, Pereira JS, Chaves MM (2007) Effects of deficit irrigation strategies on cluster microclimate for improving fruit composition of Moscatel field-grown grapevines. Sci Hortic 112:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dry PR, Loveys BR (1998) Factors influencing grapevine vigour and the potential for control with partial rootzone drying. Aust J Grape Wine Res 4:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dubrovina AS (2012) Expression of calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes in Vitis amurensis under abiotic stress conditions. J Stress Physiol Biochem 8:19Google Scholar
  36. During H (1984) Evidences for osmotic adjustments to drought in grapevine (V. vinifera). Vitis 32:1–10Google Scholar
  37. During H, Loveys BR, Dry PR (1997) Root signals affects water use efficiency and shoot growth. Acta Hortic 427:1–14Google Scholar
  38. Ebtedaie M, Shekafandeh A (2016) Antioxidant and carbohydrate changes of two pomegranate cultivars under deficit irrigation stress. Span J Agric Res 14(3):e0809. Scholar
  39. Edmeades GO, Bolaoos J, Lafitte HR (1992) Progress in selecting for drought tolerance in maize. In: Wilkinson D (ed) Proceedings of the 47th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference, Chicago, December 9-10, 1992. ASTA, Washington, pp 93–111Google Scholar
  40. El Hafid R, Smith DH, Karrou M, Samir K (1998) Physiological response of spring durum wheat cultivars to early-season drought in a Mediterranean environment. Ann Bot 81:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fahad S, Hussain S, Saud S, Khan F, Hassan S, Amanullah et al (2016) Exogenously applied plant growth regulators affect heat-stressed rice pollens. J Agron Crop Sci 202:139–150. Scholar
  42. Farooq M, Wahid A, Lee DJ (2009) Exogenously applied polyamines increase drought tolerance of rice by improving leaf water status, photosynthesis and membrane properties. Acta Physiol Plant 31:937–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fiedler S, Vepraskas MJ, Richardson JL (2007) Soil redox potential: importance, field measurements, and observations. Adv Agron 94:2–56Google Scholar
  44. Figueroa-Yanez L, Pereira-Santana A, Arroyo-Herrera A, Rodriguez-Corona U, Sanchez-Teyer F, Espadas-Alcocer J, Espadas-Gil F, Barredo-Pool F, Castano E, Rodriguez-Zapata LC (2016) RAP2.4a is transported through the phloem to regulate cold and heat tolerance in papaya tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): implications for protection against abiotic stress. PLoS One 11:e0165030CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Gambetta GA, Manuck CM, Drucker ST, Shaghasi T, Fort K, Matthews MA, Walker MA, McElrone AJ (2012) The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour across Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play? J Exp Bot 63:6445–6455CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Giorno F, Guerriero G, Baric S, Mariani C (2012) Heat shock transcriptional factors in Malus domestica: identification, classification and expression analysis. BMC Genomics 13:639CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Goel D, Singh AK, Yadav V, Babbar SB, Bansal KC (2010) Overexpression of osmotin gene confers tolerance to salt and drought stresses in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Protoplasma 245:133–141CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Guy CL, Haskell D, Li QB (1998) Association of proteins with the stress 70 molecular chaperones at low temperature: evidence for the existence of cold labile proteins in spinach. Cryobiology 36:301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Heidari Sharif Abad H (2002) Plant and salinity. The Publications of Research Institution for Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, p 199Google Scholar
  50. Houimli SIM, Denden M, Mouhandes BD (2010) Effects of 24-pibrassinolide on growth, chlorophyll, electrolyte leakage and proline by pepper plants under NaCl-stress. Eur Asian J Biol Sci 4:96–104Google Scholar
  51. Hoult MD, Donnelly MM, Smith MW (1997) Salt exclusion varies amongst polyembryonic mango cultivar seedlings. Acta Hortic 455:455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hsiao TC (1993) Effects of drought and elevated CO2 on plant water use efficiency and productivity. In: Jackson MD, Black CR (eds) Global environmental change. Interacting stresses on plants in a changing climate. NATO ASI series. Springer, New York, pp 435–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hussain M, Malik MA, Farooq M, Ashraf MY, Cheema MA (2008) Improving drought tolerance by exogenous application of glycinebetaine and salicylic acid in sunflower. J Agron Crop Sci 194:193–199. Scholar
  54. Ismail A, Riemann M, Nick P (2012) The jasmonate pathway mediates salt tolerance in grapevines. J Exp Bot 63:2127–2139. Scholar
  55. Jackson MB (2004) The impact of flooding stress on plants and crops.
  56. Jalili Marandi R, Jalil Doostali P, Hassani R (2009) Studying the tolerance of two apple roots to different concentrations of sodium chloride inside the glass. Mag Hortic Sci Iran 40:2Google Scholar
  57. Jeyakumar P, Kevino M, Kumar N, Soorinathasundaram K (2007) Physiological performance of papaya cultivars under abiotic stress conditions. Acta Hortic 740:209–215. In: Chan YK, Paull, RE (eds) Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium PapayaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jogaiah S, Oulkar DP, Banerjee K, Sharma J, Patil AS, Maske SR, Somkuwar RG (2013) Biochemically induced variations during some phenological stages in Thompson seedless grapevines grafted on different rootstocks. S Afr J Enol Vitic 34:36–45Google Scholar
  59. Jorrey JG (1976) Root hormones and plant growth. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 27:435–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Joyner MEB, Schaffer B (1989) Flooding tolerance of ‘Golden Star’ carambola trees. In: Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, vol 102, pp 236–239Google Scholar
  61. Karlidag H, Yildirim E, Metin T (2009) Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry. Sci Agric 66:180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Khan MIR, Iqbal N, Masood A, Per TS, Khan NA (2013) Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation. Plant Signal Behav 8:e26374CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Khoshbakht D, Ramin AA, Baninasab B (2015) Effects of sodium chloride stress on gas exchange, chlorophyll content and nutrient concentrations of nine citrus rootstocks. Photosynthetica 53:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Klingler JP, Balelli G, Zhu JK (2010) ABA-receptors. The start of new paradigm in phytohormone signalling. J Exp Bot 61:3199–3210CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Kobayashi M, Ohura I, Kawakita K, Yokota N, Fujiwara M, Shimamoto K et al (2007) Calcium-dependent protein kinases regulate the production of reactive oxygen species by potato NADPH oxidase. Plant Cell 19:1065–1080. PMID:17400895CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (1984) Effects of flooding on water, carbohydrate and mineral relations. In: Kozlowski TT (ed) Flooding and plant growth. Academic, Orlando, pp 165–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Stomata and gas exchange. In: Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (eds) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic, London, pp 257–282Google Scholar
  68. Larson KD, Davies FS, Schaffer B (1991) Floodwater temperature and stem lenticel hypertrophy in Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae). Am J Bot 78:1397–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Laxman RH, Annapoornamma CJ, Biradar G (2016) Mango. In: Srinivasa Rao NK, Shivashankara KS, Laxman RH (eds) Abiotic stress physiology of horticultural crops. Springer, New Delhi, pp 169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Li L, Van Staden J, Jager AK (1998) Effects of plant growth regulators on the antioxidant system in seedlings of two maize cultivars subjected to water stress. Plant Growth Regul 25:81–87. Scholar
  71. Liang L, Zhang B, Yin XR, Xu CJ, Sun CD, Chen KS (2013) Differential expression of the CBF gene family during postharvest cold storage and subsequent shelf-life of peach fruit. Plant Mol Biol Rep 31:1358–1367. Scholar
  72. Liu GT, Jun-Fang Wang JF, Cramer G, Dai ZW, Duan W, Xu HG, Wu BH, Fan PG, Wang LJ, Li SH (2012) Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress. BMC Plant Biol 12:174CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Llop-Tous I, DomõÂnguez-Puigjaner E, Vendrell M (2002) Characterization of a strawberry cDNA clone homologous to calcium dependent protein kinases that is expressed during fruit ripening and affected by low temperature. J Exp Bot 53(378):2283–2285CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Lovisolo C, Secchi F, Nardini A, Salleo S, Buffa R, Schubert A (2007) Expression of PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporins is enhanced in olive dwarf genotypes and is related to root and leaf hydraulic conductance. Physiol Plant 130:543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Luvaha E, Netondo GW, Ouma G (2007) Physiological responses of mango (mangifera indica) rootstock seedlings to water stress. J Agric Biol Sci 2(4–5). ISSN 1990-6145Google Scholar
  76. Ma Q, Suo J, Huber DJ, Dong X, Han Y, Zhang Z et al (2014) Effect of hot water treatments on chilling injury and expression of a new C-repeat binding factor (CBF) in ‘Hongyang’ kiwifruit during low temperature storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 97:102–110. Scholar
  77. Maestri E, Klueva N, Perrotta C, Gulli M, Nguyen HT, Marmiroli N (2002) Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals. Plant Mol Biol 48:667–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mahmood M, Bidabadi SS, Ghobadi C, Gray DJ (2012) Effect of methyl jasmonate treatments on alleviation of polyethylene glycol-mediated water stress in banana (Musa acuminata cv. ‘Berangan’, AAA) shoot tip cultures. Plant Growth Regul 68:161–169. Scholar
  79. Mahouachi J, Lopez-Climent MF, Gomez-Cadenas A (2014) Hormonal and hydroxycinnamic acids profiles in banana leaves in response to various periods of water stress. Sci World J 2014:1–9. Scholar
  80. Makhija M, Jindal PC (1983) Effect of different soil salinity levels on seed germination and seedling growth in papaya (Carica papaya). Seed Res 11:125–128Google Scholar
  81. Mancuso S, Azzarello E, Mugnai S, Briand X (2006) Marine bioactive substances (IPA extract) improve foliar ion uptake and water stress tolerance in potted Vitis vinifera plants. Adv Hortic Sci 20(2):156–161Google Scholar
  82. Mangelsen E, Wanke D, Kilina J, Sundberg E, Harter K, Jaasson C (2010) Significance of light, sugar and amino acids supply for diurnal gene regulation in developing barley caryopsis. Plant Phyiol 153:14–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marguerit E, Brendel O, Leben E, Van Leeuwen C, Ollat N (2012) Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes. New Phytol 194:416–429CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Marin L, Benlloch M, Fernández-Escobar R (1995) Screening of olive cultivars for salt tolerance. Sci Hortic 64:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Masood A, Iqbal N, Khan NA (2012) Role of ethylene in alleviation of cadmium induced photosynthetic capacity inhibition by sulphur in mustard. Plant Cell Environ 35:524–533CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Menendez AB, Rodriguez AA, Maiale SJ, Rodriguez-Kessler M, Jimenez-Bremont JF, Ruiz OA (2012) Polyamines contribution to the improvement of crop plants tolerance to abiotic stress. In: Tuteja N, Gill SS (eds) Crop improvement under adverse conditions. Springer, Morlenbach, pp 113–137Google Scholar
  87. Mittal D, Chakrabarti S, Sarkar A, Singh A, Grover A (2009) Heat shock factor gene family in rice: genomic organization and transcript expression profiling in response to high temperature, low temperature and oxidative stresses. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:785–795CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Mizrahi Y, Raveh E, Yossov E, Nerd A, Ben-Asher J (2007) New fruit crops with high water use efficiency. In: Janick, Whipkey A (eds) Issues in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, pp 216–222Google Scholar
  89. Morgan JM (1984) Osmoregulation and water stress in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35:299–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Munn R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Murali K, Srinivas K, Shivakumar HR, Kalyanamurthy KN (2005) Effect of soil moisture stress at different stages on yield and yield parameters of “Elakki” banana. Adv Plant Sci 18:817–822Google Scholar
  92. National Horticulture Board (2018).
  93. Navjot, Gill MS, Jawandha SK (2012) Response of mango (Mangifera indica L) to abiotic stresses: an overview. Int J Agric Env Biotechnol 5(4):459–462Google Scholar
  94. Nelson DE, Raghothama KG, Singh NK, Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA (1992) Analysis of structure and transcriptional activation of an osmotin gene. Plant Mol Biol 19:577–588CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Neves DM, Almeida LAH, Santana-Vieira DDS, Freschi L, Ferreira CF, Filho WSS, Costa MGC, Micheli F, Filho MAC, Gesteira AS (2017) Recurrent water deficit causes epigenetic and hormonal changes in citrus plants. Sci Rep 7:13684. Scholar
  96. Pandey P, Singh AK, Dubey AK, Awasthi OP (2014) Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient uptake in polyembryonic mango rootstocks. Indian J Hortic 71(1):28–34Google Scholar
  97. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Puhakainen T, Hess MW, Makela P, Svensson J, Heino P, Palva ET (2004) Over expression of multiple dehydrin genes enhances tolerance to freezing stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 54:743–753CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Raskin I (1992) Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:439–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ravi I, Vaganan MM (2016) Abiotic stress tolerance in banana. In: Rao NKS, Shivashankara KS, Laxman RH (eds) Abiotic stress physiology of horticultural crops. Springer, New Delhi, pp 207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reinth M, Terregrosa L, Luchaire N, Chatbanyong R, Lecourieux D, Kelly MT, Romieu C (2014) Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (Vitis vinifera) fruit. BMC Plant Biol 2014(14):108. Scholar
  102. Rosa MR, Juan MR, Luis R (2003) Role of grafting in horticultural plants under stress conditions. Food Agric Environ 1:70–74Google Scholar
  103. Saa S, Olivos-Del Rio A, Castro S, Brown PH (2015) Foliar application of microbial and plant based biostimulants increases growth and potassium uptake in almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb). Front Plant Sci 6:87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Sanchez-Ballesta MT, Jesus Rodrigo M, Teresa Lafuente M, Granell A, Zacarias L (2004) Dehydrin from citrus, which confers in vitro dehydration and freezing protection activity, is constitutive and highly expressed in the flavedo of fruit but responsive to cold and water stress in leaves. J Agric Food Chem 57:1950–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Santana-Vieira DDS, Freschi L, Almedida AD, Santos de Moraed DH, Neves DM, Marques dos Santos L, Berolde FZ, Filh WS, Filh MAC, Gesteira A (2016) Survival strategies of citrus rootstocks subjected to drought. Sci Rep 6:38775CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Sarad N, Rathore M, Singh NK, Kumar N (2004) Genetically engineered tomatoes: new vista for sustainable agriculture in high altitude regions. In: Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  107. Satisha J, Prakash GS (2006) The influence of water and gas exchange parameters on grafted grapevines under conditions of moisture stress. S Afr J Enol Vitic 27:40–45Google Scholar
  108. Satisha J, Prakash GS, Murti GSR, Upreti KK (2006) Response of grape rootstocks to soil moisture stress. J Hortic Sci 1:19–23Google Scholar
  109. Satisha J, Prakash GS, Murti GSR, Upreti KK (2007) Water stress and rootstocks influences hormonal status of grafted grapevines. Eur J Hortic Sci 72:202–205Google Scholar
  110. Satisha J, Doshi P, Adsule PG (2008) Influence of rootstocks on changing pattern of phenolic compounds in Thompson Seedless grapes and its relation to the incidence of powdery mildew. Turkish J Agril For 32:1–9Google Scholar
  111. Satisha J, Somkuwar RG, Sharma J, Upadhyay AK, Adsule PG (2010) Influence of rootstock on growth, yield and fruit composition of Thompson seedless grown in the Pune region of India. S Afr J Enol Vitic 31:1–8Google Scholar
  112. Schaffer B, Whiley AW, Crane JH (1994) Mango. In: Schaffer B, Andersen PC (eds) Handbook of environmental physiology of fruit crops, Sub tropical and tropical crops, vol 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 165–197Google Scholar
  113. Scholefield PB, Oag DR, Sedgley M (1986) The relationship between vegetative and reproductive development in mango in Northern Australia. Aust J Agric Res 37:425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schramm F, Ganguli A, Kiehlmann E, English G, Walch D, von Koskull-Doring P (2006) The heat stress transcription factor HsfA2 serves as a regulatory amplifier of a subset of genes in the heat stress response in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 60:759–772CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Secchi F, Lovisolo C, Uehlein N, Kaldenhoff R, Schubert A (2007) Isolation and functional characterization of three aquaporins from olive (Olea europaea L.). Planta 225:381–392CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Shang Y, Yan L, Liu IQ, Zheng C, Chao M, Xin Q, FQ W, Wang XF, Du SY, Jiang J, Zhang XF, Zhao R, Sun HI, Liu R, Yi YT, Zhang DP (2010) The Mg-chelatase heat subunit of Arabidopsis antagonizing a group of transcription repressors to relieve ABA responsive gene inhibition. Plant Cell 22:1909–1935CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Sharma J, Upadhyay AK (2008) Rootstock effect on Tas A-Ganesh (Vitis vinifera L.) for sodium and chloride uptake. Acta Hortic 785:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shi H, Ye T, Zhu J-K, Chan Z (2014) Constitutive production of nitric oxide leads to enhanced drought stress resistance and extensive transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 65:4119–4131. Scholar
  119. Skibbe M, Qu N, Galis I, Baldwin IT (2008) Induced plant defences in the natural environment Nicotiana attenuate WRKY3 and WRKY6 coordinate responses in herbivory. Plant Cell 20:1984–2000CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Song Y, Jing SJ, Yu DQ (2009) Over expression of the stress induced OSWRKY08 improves the osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. Chin Sci Bull 54:4671–4678Google Scholar
  121. Spann TM, Little HA (2011) Applications of a commercial extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum increases drought tolerance in container-grown “Hamlin” sweet orange nursery trees. Hortic Sci 46(4):577–582Google Scholar
  122. Srinivas K (1996) Plant water relations, yield, and water use of papaya (Carica papaya L.) at different evaporation-replenishment rates under drip irrigation. Trop Agric 73:264–269Google Scholar
  123. Stoll M, Loveys BR, Dry P (2000) Hormonal changes induced by partial rootzone drying of irrigated grapevine. J Exp Bot 51:1627–1634CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Takahashi T, Kakehi JI (2010) Polyamines: ubiquitous poly cations with unique roles in growth and stress responses. Ann Bot 105:1–6. Scholar
  125. Tavladoraki P, Alessandra Cona A, Federico R, Tempera G, Viceconte N, Saccoccio S, Battaglia V, Toninello A, Agostinelli E (2012) Polyamine catabolism: target for antiproliferative therapies in animals and stress tolerance strategies in plants. Amino Acids 42:411–426CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Tisi A, Federico R, Moreno S, Lucretti S, Moschou PN, Roubelakis- Angelakis KA, Angelini R, Cona A (2011) Perturbation of polyamine catabolism can strongly affect root development and xylem differentiation. Plant Physiol 157:200–215CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Toumi I, Moschou PN, Paschalidis KA, Bouamama B, Salem-fnayou AB, Ghorbel AW, Mliki A, Roubelakis-Angelakis KA (2010) Abscisic acid signals reorientation of polyamine metabolism to orchestrate stress responses via the polyamine exodus pathway in grapevine. J Plant Physiol 167:519–525CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Turner NC, Jones MM (1980) Turgor maintenance by osmotic adjustment: a review and evaluation. In: Turner NC, Kramer PJ (eds) Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress. Wiley, New York, pp 78–103Google Scholar
  129. Upreti KK, Murti GSR (2010) Response of grape rootstocks to salinity: changes in root growth, polyamines and absissic acid. Biol Plant 54:730–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Van Oosten MJ, Pepe O, De Pascale S, Silletti S, Maggio A (2017) The role of biostimulants and bioeffectors as alleviators of abiotic stress in crop plants. Chem Biol Technol Agric 4:5. Scholar
  131. Vanholme B, Grunewald W, Bateman A, Kohchi T, Gheysen G (2007) The tify family previously known as ZIM. Trends Plant Sci 12:239–244CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Viktorova J, Krasny L, Kamlar M, Novakova M, Mackova M, Macek T (2012) Osmotin, a pathogenesis-related protein. Curr Protein Pept Sci 13:672–681CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Vives-Peris V, Marmaneu D, Gómez-Cadenas A, Clemente P (2018) Characterization of Citrus WRKY transcription factors and their responses to phytohormones and abiotic stresses. Biol Plant 62:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Vollenweider P, Gunthardt-Goerg MS (2005) Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage. Environ Pollut 137:455–465. Scholar
  135. Wang LJ, Li SH (2007) The effects of salicylic acid on distribution of 14C assimilation and photosynthesis in young grape plants under heat stress. Acta Hortic 738:779–7851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wang LJ, Fan L, Loescher W, Duan W, Liu G, Cheng J, Luo H, Li S (2010) Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves. BMC Plant Biol 10:34. Scholar
  137. Wang JN, Kuang JF, Shan W, Chen J, Xie H, Lu WJ et al (2012) Expression profiles of a banana fruit linker histone H1 gene MaHIS1 and its interaction with a WRKY transcription factor. Plant Cell Rep 31:1485–1494. Scholar
  138. Wegner LH (2010) Oxygen transport in waterlogged plants. In: Mancuso S, Shabala S (eds) Waterlogging signalling and tolerance in plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Weis E, Berry JA (1988) Plants and high temperature stress. Soc Exp Biol 42:329–346Google Scholar
  140. Whiley AW, Schaffer B (1997) Stress physiology. In: Litz RE (ed) The mango: botany, production and uses. CAB International, New York, pp 147–174Google Scholar
  141. Wi SJ, Kim WT, Park KY (2006) Over expression of carnation S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase gene generates a broad-spectrum tolerance to abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Cell Rep 25:1111–1121CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Wimalasekera R, Tebartz F, Scherer GF (2011) Polyamines, polyamine oxidases and nitric oxide in development, abiotic and biotic stresses. Plant Sci 181:593–603CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Xu CX, Ma YP, Liu YL (2015) Effects of silicon (Si) on growth, quality and ionic homeostasis of aloe under salt stress. S Afr J Bot 98:26–36. Scholar
  144. Yamada M, Hidaka T, Fukamachi H (1996) Heat tolerance in leaves of tropical fruit crops as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Sci Hortic 67:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yang Y, He M, Zhu Z, Li S, Xu Y, Zhang C, Singer SD, Wang Y (2012) Identification of the dehydrin gene family from grapevine species and analysis of their responsiveness to various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. BMC Plant Biol 12:140. Scholar
  146. Yohannes DB (2006) Studies on salt tolerance of Vitis spp. Ph.D thesis submitted to University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, p 132Google Scholar
  147. Yokoi S, Quintero FJ, Cubero B, Ruiz MT, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (2002) Differential expression and function of Arabidopsis thaliana NHX Na+/H+ antiporters in the salt stress response. Plant J 30:529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zandalinas SI, Rivero RM, Martinez V, Arbona V (2016) Temperatures and drought is associated to the increase in transpiration modulated by a reduction in abscisic acid levels. BMC Plant Biol 16(1):105–120CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Zandkarimi H, Ebadi A, Salami SA, Alizade H, Baisakh N (2015) Analyzing the expression profile of AREB/ABF and DREB/CBF genes under drought and salinity stresses in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). PLoS One 10:e0134288CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Zawoznik MS, Ameneiros M, Benavides MP, Vasquez S, Groppa MD (2011) Response to saline stress and aquaporin expression in Azospirillum-inoculated barley seedlings. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90:1389–1397CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Zhang Z, Zhu Q, Hu M, Gao Z, An F, Li M et al (2017) Low-temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in stored mango fruit. Food Chem 219:76–84. Scholar
  152. Zhu B, Chen THH, Li PH (1995) Activation of two osmotin line protein genes by a biotic stimuli and fungal pathogen in transgenic potato plants. Plant Physiol 108:929–937CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Satisha
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. H. Laxman
    • 1
  • K. K. Upreti
    • 1
  • K. S. Shivashankara
    • 1
  • L. R. Varalakshmi
    • 1
  • M. Sankaran
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations