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Mechanisms of Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Their Management Strategies in Fruit Crops

  • J. SatishaEmail author
  • R. H. Laxman
  • K. K. Upreti
  • K. S. Shivashankara
  • L. R. Varalakshmi
  • M. Sankaran
Chapter

Abstract

Fruit cultivation is one of the remunerative enterprises in the present situation as it not only provides nutritional security along with vegetables, but also helps to create lot of employment opportunities in addition to increase the income of the fruit growers. Though we produce large quantity of fruits, still productivity of most of the fruit crops are far inferior compared to other developed countries. This may be attributed to several abiotic stresses encountered at critical stages of fruit cultivation. These abiotic stresses are more aggravated in recent years due to climate change which is clearly visible in terms of increased frequency of such stresses, their intensity, and duration. Environmental stresses such as salinity, water deficiency, high water level, cold weather, and low/high temperature affect plant growth and decreases horticultural crop’s productivity worldwide. It is important to improve stress tolerance of the crop plant to increase crop yield under stress conditions and reduce the yield gaps. Drought and salinity stress can cause a variety of symptoms common to other major stresses such as light, heat, and nutrient deficiency and the symptoms are very specific to time and geographical location. In many of the fruit crops, there are several combinations of mechanisms which can help to tolerate most of these stresses. Since, abiotic stress tolerance in most of the crops is controlled by multigenes; it is very difficult to understand the stress tolerance at molecular level. Crops have evolved several mechanisms to overcome such abiotic stresses through various morphological, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms. Understanding such mechanisms may help in developing varieties which are tolerant to such stresses either through conventional breeding methods or by nontraditional methods. However, several strategies have been developed from management view point to cope up with stresses and maintain yield and quality of horticultural produce. These stresses may be alleviated by altering the pruning time to avoid stress situations at critical stages of growth. Use of some chemicals like antitranspirants, osmoprotectants, biofertilizers, practice of mulching, etc. are important practices to be followed to alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. Use of drought, salt, and flood tolerant rootstocks seems to be a good strategy to overcome the ill effects of those stresses. The advanced irrigation methods like partial root zone drying need to be implemented under limited water conditions. Use of some microbial inoculants is also reported to offer some degree of stress tolerance in certain fruit crops.

Keywords

Fruit crops Abiotic stresses Physio-biochemical mechanisms Water use efficiency Molecular mechanisms Stress management Vegetables Adaptation options Management strategies High temperature Deficit moisture stress Excess moisture stress Multiple stresses 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Satisha
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. H. Laxman
    • 1
  • K. K. Upreti
    • 1
  • K. S. Shivashankara
    • 1
  • L. R. Varalakshmi
    • 1
  • M. Sankaran
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

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