Advertisement

System of Assured Rice Production in Kharif: A Resource-Conserving and Climate-Resilient Methodology for Higher Productivity and Profitability

  • Sampad R. Patra
  • Malay K. Bhowmick
Chapter
  • 142 Downloads

Abstract

The System of Assured Rice Production (SARP) in kharif (wet) season is a resource-conserving, climate-resilient and farmers’ friendly methodology involving scientific principles and simple practices toward producing healthy and robust seedlings, prolonging nursery duration if required, and shortening main field duration of transplanted rice. The basic principles include production of high potential and healthy seedlings using very low seeding density (15–20 g m−2), adequate addition of organic manure (1.0–2.0 kg m−2), and adopting an integrated nutrient management practice (macro and micronutrients both) in nursery; flexibility in seedling age for transplanting in main field, based on prevailing weather situation; reduced requirement of quality seeds; and significant reduction in nursery area. The seedlings, thus, raised can remain fit in SARP (Kharif) nursery for transplanting even up to the age of 60 days, displaying no yield penalty in the main field as compared to the conventional transplanting of rice (CTR). At least 15% yield advantages are common when seedlings are transplanted at normal seedling age. Early sowing, delayed transplanting and early harvesting of kharif rice would allow enough time for raising a green manuring crop and its incorporation in rice cultivation through SARP (Kharif), and timely sowing of succeeding rabi pulses and oilseeds, thereby benefiting soil health and ensuring sustainability of rice-based cropping system. SARP (Kharif) also suits better in adopting the common crop sequence of jute-rice in jute growing areas of West Bengal. SARP (Kharif) is a two-in-one methodology in one way of realizing higher productivity and another way of contingent cropping to combat unfavorable climatic situations. Thus, SARP (Kharif) provides huge prospects and opportunities to the farmers in assuring their kharif rice production with multiple benefits including higher yields and profit margins even under climatic adversities.

Keywords

Healthy seedling Kharif season Nursery management System of Assured Rice Production (SARP) 

References

  1. Anonymous (2015) System of assured rice production (SARP). Newsletter 3(1). Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, p 1Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2018a) System of assured rice production (Kharif) or SARP (K). Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, 36 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2018b) System of assured rice production—A new option for rice crop. Newsletter 7(1), Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, p 2Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2018c) Advances in agricultural research in West Bengal (in Bengali). Basundhara 34:34–35Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2018d) System of assured Kharif Rice production or SARP (Kharif). Bengali leaflet, agricultural information and publicity cell, Directorate of Agriculture (Govt. of W.B.), Kolkata, 2 pGoogle Scholar
  6. Attri SD, Tyagi A (2010) Climate profile of India. India Meteorological Department, New Delhi, pp 18–19Google Scholar
  7. Azhiri-Sigari T, Desamero NV, Cabigat JC, Abayao EH (2004) Seedbed and seedling management in the Ifugao rice terraces. Philip J Crop Sci 29(3):45–50Google Scholar
  8. Banerjee S (2018) Dhan chasher natun padhyati, Sudha, in Bengali (SARP: a new method of rice cultivation). Sabuj Sona 41(16), p 5Google Scholar
  9. Barman D, Saha AR, Kundu DK, Mahapatra BS (2012) Rainfall characteristics analysis for jute based cropping system at Barrackpore, West Bengal, India. J Agric Phys 12(1):23–28Google Scholar
  10. BCKV-DR (2019) Pursuing sustainable rice productivity at western tract of West Bengal with system of assured rice production technology. Progress Report, 2018–2019. Directorate of Research (DR), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, p 42+xxixGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhowmick MK, Aich A, Aich SS, Shrivastava MP, Gupta S, Man GC (2005) Crop diversification through paira (utera) cropping with rabi pulses. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 9:43–60Google Scholar
  12. Bhowmick MK, Dutta A, Saha PK, Gupta S, Man GC, Ghosh RK (2006) Crop diversification through oilseeds in India with particular reference to West Bengal. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 10:37–61Google Scholar
  13. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Patra SR, Duary B, Ghosh RK (2019) Weeds and their management options under different rice establishment methods. In: Biswas B (ed) Climate resilient rice production technology for higher yield and water productivity. Amazon-Kindle Publishers. (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Bhowmick MK, Srivastava AK, Singh S, Dhara MC, Aich SS, Patra SR, Ismail AM (2020) Realizing the potential of coastal flood-prone areas for rice production in West Bengal: prospects and challenges. In: Rakshit A, Singh HB, Singh AK, Singh US, Fraceto L (eds) New frontiers in stress management for durable agriculture. Springer, Singapore. (in press)Google Scholar
  15. Dhara MC, Bhowmick MK, Patra SR (2019) Different methods of rice crop establishment in West Bengal. In: Biswas B (ed) Climate resilient rice production technology for higher yield and water productivity. Amazon-Kindle Publishers. (in press)Google Scholar
  16. DRR (2011) Seed density in nursery. Training Manual. Rice Knowledge Management Portal, Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Hyderabad. www.rkmp.co.in. Accessed 27 June 2011
  17. Guhathakurta P, Rajeevan M (2008) Trends in the rainfall pattern over India. Int J Climatol 28:1453–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haldar A, Pal PP, Singh SS (2018) Doubling farmers’ income by 2022 in West Bengal. ICAR-Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute (ATARI), Kolkata, 203 pGoogle Scholar
  19. Hossain MB, Kumar TN, Ahmed S (2001) Effect of zinc, boron and molybdenum application on the yield and nutrient uptake by BRRI Dhan 30. Biol Sci 1(8):698–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khanna R (2012) Delayed monsoon affects Bengal. The Indian Express, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  21. Majumder C (2018) Winter rice production through improved nursery and nutrient management. Ph.D. thesis, 2017–18 (Ray M, Chairman). Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, MohanpurGoogle Scholar
  22. Mishra S (2006) Monsoon weather variation and its impact on agriculture. West Bengal. www.banglarmukh.com. Accessed 2 Dec 2014
  23. Om H (1996) Response of rice hybrid PMS 2 A/IR 31802 to seedling vigour and nitrogen levels in Haryana, India. Int Rice Res Note 21(1):47–48Google Scholar
  24. Patra SR (2018) From the Desk of Director of Agriculture & Ex-Officio Secretary. Newsletter 6(7), Government of West Bengal, Agriculture Department, Kolkata, p 2Google Scholar
  25. Patra SR (2019) Climate-smart agriculture towards improving livelihood security and farmers’ income in West Bengal. Souvenir. National seminar on “sustainable resource management for enhancing farm income, nutritional security and livelihood improvement”, Department of Agronomy, Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, 1–3 February 2019, pp 37–38Google Scholar
  26. Patra SR, Ray M, Das S (2013) Influence of seedling management, age of seedling and nutrient levels on yield of wet season rice. In: Extended summaries. ARRW golden jubilee international symposium on “sustainable rice production and livelihood security: challenges and opportunities”, Central Rice Research Institute (ICAR), Cuttack, 2–5 March 2013, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  27. Patra SR, Ray M, Das S, Halder P, Hembram SK, Majumder C (2014) Seedling density, seedling age and nutrient management for wet season rice production. Oryza 51(3):213–218Google Scholar
  28. Patra SR, Das S, Halder P (2015) System of assured rice production: towards combating climate change and restoring soil health. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 19:103–112Google Scholar
  29. Ros C, Bell RW, White PF (1997) Effect of seed phosphorus and soil phosphorus applications on early growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. IR66. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 43(3):499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarwal N, Maqsood M, Wajid SA, Anwar-ul-Haq M (2011) Impact of nursery seeding density, nitrogen and seedling age on yield and yield attributes of fine rice. Chilean J Agric Res 71(3):343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaheed A (2002) Strategies to address soil micronutrient deficiencies for flooded rice 17th WCSS, Thailand, 14–21 August 2002. Symposium No. 05, Paper No. 779Google Scholar
  32. WBAPCC (2012) West Bengal action plan on climate change, Government of West Bengal, 191 p. www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/West-Bengal-SAPCC.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2012
  33. WMRS (2011) Annual report (2010–2011). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 7–19Google Scholar
  34. WMRS (2013) Annual report (2012–2013). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 21–29Google Scholar
  35. WMRS (2014) Annual report (2013–2014). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 33–35Google Scholar
  36. WMRS (2015) Annual report (2014–2015). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 14–30Google Scholar
  37. WMRS (2017) Annual report (2016–2017). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 6–12Google Scholar
  38. WMRS (2018) Annual report (2017–2018). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Begopara, p 6–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sampad R. Patra
    • 1
  • Malay K. Bhowmick
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal)KolkataIndia
  2. 2.Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal)KolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations