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Cancer Stem Cells and Therapeutic Angiogenesis

  • Sambhavi Bhagavatheeswaran
  • Anandan Balakrishnan
Chapter
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process of formation of new blood vessel from preexisting blood vessel during fetal development, ovulation, and wound healing. Tumor growth and maintenance are critically controlled by tumor angiogenesis by facilitating the ingress of tumor cells into the circulatory system and in turn metastatic spread of the tumor. Apart from self-renewal and proliferating capabilities, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are also involved in tumor angiogenesis. CSCs establish a vascular niche by expressing vascular-related mediators to induce neovascularity around tumors. Developing antiangiogenic agents that also targets CSCs and evaluating its effect on a three-dimensional (3D) angiogenesis spheroid model are significant cancer therapeutic measures as the interactions between niche and CSCs and the heterogeneity can be understood better by using 3D spheroid. Furthermore exploiting the antiangiogenic effect of phytochemicals is beneficial over other available conventional drugs as they have relative pharmacological safety and target multiple molecular pathways to exert its anticancer effect.

Keywords

Cancer stem cells Vascular niche Phytochemicals Spheroid Antiangiogenesis 

Abbreviations

ABCG-2

ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2

ALK1

Activin A receptor-like type 1

BM

Basement membrane

BMP

Bone morphogenic proteins

BMPR

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CSC

Cancer stem cell

EC

Endothelial cell

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate

EPC

Endothelial progenitor cell

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

LGR5

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5

MVD

Microvessel density

PD-ECGF

Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor 1

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

SDF-1

Stromal cell-derived factor 1

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VEGFR-2

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by DST-SERB-ECR Grant (DST No: ECR/2015/000265).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sambhavi Bhagavatheeswaran
    • 1
  • Anandan Balakrishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Genetics, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical SciencesUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia

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