Cancer Stem Cells and Tumour Aggressiveness
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Tumours are groups of cells, consisting of heterogeneous types of cells that exhibit abnormal cellular characteristics and behaviours. The molecular characteristics of tumour cells can be used to classify the tumour types. In a tumour, the complexity of the population of cell types involved and their diverse gene expression patterns, contribute significantly to tumour heterogeneity, growth, metastasis and aggressiveness. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cells in a tumour that are highly plastic in nature and possess self-renewing capacity. The CSCs can differentiate into different cell types, and play crucial roles in tumour initiation, growth and progression. CSCs drive metastasis, therapeutic resistance and recurrence of cancers, and thus act as the key regulators of tumour aggressiveness. The CSCs trigger the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cells in the tumour, which leads to increased invasiveness of these cells. These unique subpopulations of cells can communicate with their tumour microenvironment (TME) or niche, and stimulate their niche to secrete several intrinsic factors, which triggers neoangiogenesis to promote metastasis. The multipotent and tumour-initiating abilities of CSCs stimulate or alter various signalling networks to cause extravasation of primary cancer cells that result in cancer metastasis. Consequently, the CSCs promote tumour aggressiveness, which can lead to relapse of cancers after various treatments, and thus, pose critical problems in designing novel therapeutics to specifically target and eliminate CSCs. Therefore, CSCs and tumour aggressiveness still remain as one of the major challenges in curing cancer, despite recent advancements in therapeutic approaches to treat various cancers. Here, we discuss the key roles of CSCs in the regulation of EMT, metastasis, cancer metabolism and critical signalling pathways that influences tumour aggressiveness.
KeywordsCancer stem cells Self-renewal Tumour initiation Epithelial to mesenchymal transition Invasiveness Angiogenesis Metastasis Tumour aggressiveness
We express our sincere appreciation to Dr. Yuvaraj Sambandam (Immune Monitoring Core, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA) for thoroughly reading this manuscript and providing critical suggestions.
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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