Interventions in Pancreatitis: Drainage Procedures

  • Pankaj Gupta
  • Pratyaksha Rana


Pancreatic collection is an important complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). The management of pancreatic collections mandates a multidisciplinary approach with the involvement of gastroenterologist, interventional radiologist, and surgeon. Drainage of a pancreatic collection is indicated when there is a suspicion or evidence of infected necrosis, worsening of organ failure despite medical management, severe pain, intra-abdominal hypertension, or pressure symptoms. Despite advances in interventional gastroenterology and minimally invasive surgical techniques, percutaneous drainage plays an important role in the management of patients with moderately severe and severe AP. In this chapter, the indications, technical aspects, and complications of percutaneous drainage procedures for collections in the setting of AP is discussed.


Acute pancreatitis Collections Drainage Percutaneous catheter drainage 


  1. 1.
    Pandol SJ, Saluja AK, Imrie CW, Banks PA. Acute pancreatitis: bench to the bedside. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(3):1127–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shanbhogue AK, Fasih N, Surabhi VR, Doherty GP, Shanbhogue DK, Sethi SK. A clinical and radiologic review of uncommon types and causes of pancreatitis. Radiographics. 2009;29(4):1003–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banks PA, Bollen TL, Dervenis C, Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis--2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus. Gut. 2013;62(1):102–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foster BR, Jensen KK, Bakis G, Shaaban AM, Coakley FV. Revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis: a pictorial essay. Radiographics. 2019;39(3):912.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thoeni RF. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis: its importance for the radiologist and its effect on treatment. Radiology. 2012;262(3):751–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gupta P, Jain R, Koshi S, et al. Radiation dose from computed tomography in patients with acute pancreatitis: an audit from a tertiary care referral hospital. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2020;45(5):1517–23.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balthazar EJ. CT contrast enhancement of the pancreas: patterns of enhancement, pitfalls and clinical implications. Pancreatology. 2011;11:585–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishikawa K, Idoguchi K, Tanaka H, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis based on retroperitoneal extension: application of the concept of interfascial planes. Eur J Radiol. 2006;60(3):445–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta P, Rana P, Bellam BL, et al. Site and size of extrapancreatic necrosis are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2020;20(1):9–15.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mortelé KJ, Mergo PJ, Taylor HM, Ernst MD, Ros PR. Splenic and perisplenic involvement in acute pancreatitis: determination of prevalence and morphologic helical CT features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2001;25(1):50–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta P, Virk M, Gulati A, et al. Unusual sites of necrotic collections in acute necrotizing pancreatitis: association with parenchymal necrosis and clinical outcomes. Dig Dis Sci 2020. (Ahead of Print).
  12. 12.
    Wang M, Wei A, Guo Q, et al. Clinical outcomes of combined necrotizing pancreatitis versus extrapancreatic necrosis alone. Pancreatology. 2016;16(1):57–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morgan DE, Baron TH, Smith JK, Robbin ML, Kenney PJ. Pancreatic fluid collections prior to intervention: evaluation with MR imaging compared with CT and US. Radiology. 1997;203(3):773–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freeman ML, Werner J, van Santvoort HC, et al. International Multidisciplinary Panel of Speakers and Moderators. Interventions for necrotizing pancreatitis: summary of a multidisciplinary consensus conference. Pancreas. 2012;41(8):1176–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rau BM, Bothe A, Kron M, Beger HG. Role of early multisystem organ failure as major risk factor for pancreatic infections and death in severe acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4(8):1053–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gerzof SG, Banks PA, Robbins AH, et al. Early diagnosis of pancreatic infection by computed tomography-guided aspiration. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:1315–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Banks PA, Gerzof SG, Chong FK, et al. Bacteriologic status of necrotic tissue in necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas. 1990;5:330–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Working Group IAP/APA Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines. IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2013;13(4 Suppl 2):e1–15.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wittau M, Mayer B, Scheele J, Henne-Bruns D, Dellinger EP, Isenmann R. Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in severe acute pancreatitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011;46(3):261–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jiang K, Huang W, Yang XN, Xia Q. Present and future of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:279e84.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Villatoro E, Mulla M, Larvin M. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;5:CD002941.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Piascik M, Rydzewska G, Milewski J, et al. The results of severe acute pancreatitis treatment with continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and antibiotic: a randomized controlled study. Pancreas. 2010;39:863e7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Büchler MW, Gloor B, Müller CA, Friess H, Seiler CA, Uhl W. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: treatment strategy according to the status of infection. Ann Surg. 2000;232(5):619–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bello B, Matthews JB. Minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic necrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(46):6829–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Loveday BP, Petrov MS, Connor S, Rossaak JI, Mittal A, Phillips AR, et al. Pancreas Network of New Zealand. A comprehensive classification of invasive procedures for treating the local complications of acute pancreatitis based on visualization, route, and purpose. Pancreatology. 2011;11(4):406–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang ZH, Ding YX, Wu YD, Gao CC, Li F. A meta-analysis and systematic review of percutaneous catheter drainage in treating infected pancreatitis necrosis. Medicine. 2018;97(47):e12999.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Freeny PC, Hauptmann E, Althaus SJ, Traverso LW, Sinanan M. Percutaneous CT-guided catheter drainage of infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis: techniques and results. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(4):969–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baudin G, Chassang M, Gelsi E, et al. CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of acute infectious necrotizing pancreatitis: assessment of effectiveness and safety. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(1):192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mehta V, Kumar R, Parkash S, et al. Role of percutaneous catheter drainage as primary treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2019;30(2):184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ke L, Li J, Hu P, Wang L, Chen H, Zhu Y. Percutaneous catheter drainage in infected pancreatitis necrosis: a systematic review. Indian J Surg. 2016;78(3):221–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    van Baal MC, van Santvoort HC, Bollen TL, Bakker OJ, Besselink MG, Gooszen HG, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. Systematic review of percutaneous catheter drainage as primary treatment for necrotizing pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2011;98(1):18–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uhl W. Systematic review of percutaneous catheter drainage as primary treatment for necrotizing pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 2011;98(1):27–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee MJ, Rattner DW, Legemate DA, et al. Acute complicated pancreatitis: redefining the role of interventional radiology. Radiology. 1992;183(1):171–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rotman N, Mathieu D, Anglade MC, Fagniez PL. Failure of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic abscesses complicating severe acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992;174(2):141–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sunday ML, Schuricht AL, Barbot DJ, Rosato FE. Management of infected pancreatic fluid collections. Am Surg. 1994;60(1):63–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Aultman DF, Bilton BD, Zibari GB, McMillan RW, McDonald JC. Non-operative therapy for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Am Surg. 1997;63(12):1114–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Echenique AM, Sleeman D, Yrizarry J, et al. Percutaneous catheter-directed debridement of infected pancreatic necrosis: results in 20 patients. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1998;9(4):565–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gambiez LP, Denimal FA, Porte HL, Saudemont A, Chambon JP, Quandalle PA. Retroperitoneal approach and endoscopic management of peripancreatic necrosis collections. Arch Surg. 1998;133(1):66–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fotoohi M, D’Agostino HB, Wollman B, Chon K, Shahrokni S, van Sonnenberg E. Persistent pancreatocutaneous fistula after percutaneous drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: role of cause and severity of pancreatitis. Radiology. 1999;213(2):573–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baril NB, Ralls PW, Wren SM, et al. Does an infected peripancreatic fluid collection or abscess mandate operation? Ann Surg. 2000;231(3):361–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baron TH, Harewood GC, Morgan DE, Yates MR. Outcome differences after endoscopic drainage of pancreatic necrosis, acute pancreatic pseudocysts, and chronic pancreatic pseudocysts. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56(1):7–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cheung MT, Ho CN, Siu KW, Kwok PC. Percutaneous drainage and necrosectomy in the management of pancreatic necrosis. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75(4):204–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Oláh A, Belágyi T, Bartek P, Pohárnok L, Romics L Jr. Alternative treatment modalities of infected pancreatic necrosis. Hepato-Gastroenterology. 2006;53(70):603–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Navalho M, Pires F, Duarte A, Gonçalves A, Alexandrino P, Távora I. Percutaneous drainage of infected pancreatic fluid collections in critically ill patients: correlation with C-reactive protein values. Clin Imaging. 2006;30(2):114–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee JK, Kwak KK, Park JK, et al. The efficacy of nonsurgical treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. Pancreas. 2007;34(4):399–404.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Szentkereszty Z, Kotán R, Pósán J, Arkossy P, Sápy P. Therapeutic tactics in the treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Hepato-Gastroenterology. 2008;55(81):266–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bruennler T, Langgartner J, Lang S, et al. Outcome of patients with acute, necrotizing pancreatitis requiring drainage-does drainage size matter? World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(5):725–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mortelé KJ, Girshman J, Szejnfeld D, et al. CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of acute necrotizing pancreatitis: clinical experience and observations in patients with sterile and infected necrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(1):110–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Van Santvoort HC, Besselink MG, Bakker OJ, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. A step-up approach or open necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(16):1491–502.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sugimoto M, Sonntag DP, Flint GS, et al. A percutaneous drainage protocol for severe and moderately severe acute pancreatitis. Surg Endosc. 2015;29(11):3282–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sugimoto M, Sonntag DP, Flint GS, et al. Better outcomes if percutaneous drainage is used early and proactively in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2016;27(3):418–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mallick B, Dhaka N, Gupta P, et al. An audit of percutaneous drainage for acute necrotic collections and walled off necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2018;18(7):727–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bellam BL, Samanta J, Gupta P, et al. Predictors of outcome of percutaneous catheter drainage in patients with acute pancreatitis having acute fluid collection and development of a predictive model. Pancreatology. 2019;S1424-3903(19):30580.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zerem E, Imamovic G, Omerović S, Imširović B. Randomized controlled trial on sterile fluid collections management in acute pancreatitis: should they be removed? Surg Endosc. 2009;23(12):2770–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kotán R, Sápy P, Sipka S, et al. Serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell level as markers of successful percutaneous drainage of acute sterile peripancreatic fluid collection. Chirurgia. 2015;110(1):56–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang T, Liu LY, Luo H, et al. Intra-abdominal pressure reduction after percutaneous catheter drainage is a protective factor for severe pancreatitis patients with sterile fluid collections. Pancreas. 2016;45(1):127–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sharma V, Gorsi U, Gupta R, Rana SS. Percutaneous interventions in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Trop Gastroenterol. 2016;37(1):4–18.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rocha FG, Benoit E, Zinner MJ, et al. Impact of radiologic intervention on mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis: the role of organ failure. Arch Surg. 2009;144(3):261–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sion MK, Davis KA. Step-up approach for the management of pancreatic necrosis: a review of the literature. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2019;4(1):e000308.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Strobel O, Büchler MW. Necrotizing pancreatitis: long-term outcomes show superiority of the step-up approach versus open necrosectomy. Chirurg. 2019;90(2):153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hollemans RA, Bakker OJ, Boermeester MA, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. Superiority of step-up approach vs open necrosectomy in long-term follow-up of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 2019;156(4):1016–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bakker OJ, van Santvoort HC, van Brunschot S, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. Endoscopic transgastric vs surgical necrosectomy for infected necrotizing pancreatitis: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2012;307(10):1053–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Keane MG, Sze SF, Cieplik N, et al. Endoscopic versus percutaneous drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections: a 14-year experience from a tertiary hepatobiliary centre. Surg Endosc. 2016;30(9):3730–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Khan MA, Hammad T, Khan Z, et al. Endoscopic versus percutaneous management for symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endosc Int Open. 2018;6(4):E474–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fernandez-del Castillo C, Rattner DW, Makary MA, Mostafavi A, McGrath D, Warshaw AL. Debridement and closed packing for the treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 1998;228:676e84.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Besselink MG, Verwer TJ, Schoenmaeckers EJ, et al. Timing of surgical intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis. Arch Surg. 2007;142:1194e201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mier J, Luque-de León E, Castillo A, Robledo F, Blanco R. Early versus late necrosectomy in severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Am J Surg. 1997;173:71e5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Van Grinsven J, van Santvoort HC, Boermeester MA, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. Timing of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;13(5):306–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Van Grinsven J, Van Dijk SM, Dijkgraaf MG, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. Postponed or immediate drainage of infected necrotizing pancreatitis (POINTER trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2019;20(1):239.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhang H, Chen GY, Xiao L, et al. Ultrasonic/CT image fusion guidance facilitating percutaneous catheter drainage in treatment of acute pancreatitis complicated with infected walled-off necrosis. Pancreatology. 2018;18(6):635–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kariniemi J, Sequeiros RB, Ojala R, Tervonen O. Feasibility of MR imaging-guided percutaneous drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17(8):1321–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    van Grinsven J, Timmerman P, Van Lienden KP, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. Proactive versus standard percutaneous catheter drainage for infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2017;46(4):518–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Makris GC, See T, Winterbottom A, Jah A, Shaida N. Minimally invasive pancreatic necrosectomy; a technical pictorial review. Br J Radiol. 2018;91(1082):20170435.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horvath K, Freeny P, Escallon J, et al. Safety and efficacy of video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement for infected pancreatic collections: a multicenter, prospective, single-arm phase 2 study. Arch Surg. 2010;145(9):817–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nuñez D Jr, Yrizarry JM, Russell E, et al. Transgastric drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;145(4):815–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yamakado K, Takaki H, Nakatsuka A, et al. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses following abdominal surgery under real-time CT-fluoroscopic guidance. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2010;33(1):161–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ciftci TT, Akinci D, Akhan O. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of inaccessible post-operative abdominal abscesses. Am J Radiol. 2012;198:477–81.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mueller PR, Ferrucci JT Jr, Simeone JF, et al. Lesser sac abscesses and fluid collections: drainage by transhepatic approach. Radiology. 1985;155(3):615–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bassi C, Marchegiani G, Dervenis C, International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), et al. The 2016 update of the International Study Group (ISGPS) definition and grading of post-operative pancreatic fistula: 11 years after. Surgery. 2017;161(3):584–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mallick B, Malik S, Gupta P, Gorsi U, Kochhar S, Gupta V, et al. Arterial pseudoaneurysms in acute and chronic pancreatitis: clinical profile and outcome. JGH Open. 2018;3(2):126–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bansal A, Gupta P, Singh H. Gastrointestinal complications in acute and chronic pancreatitis. JGH Open. 2019;3(6):450–5. Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gupta P, Das GC, Samanta J, et al. Role of computed tomography in prediction of gastrointestinal fistula in patients with acute pancreatitis. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2019;82(4):495–500.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hollemans RA, Bollen TL, van Brunschot S, Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, et al. Predicting success of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 2016;263(4):787–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guo Q, Li A, Hu W. Predictive factors for successful ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage in necrotizing pancreatitis. Surg Endosc. 2016;30:2929–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Li A, Cao F, Li J, Fang Y, Wang X, Liu DG, Li F. Step-up mini-invasive surgery for infected pancreatic necrosis: results from prospective cohort study. Pancreatology. 2016;16(4):508–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Babu RY, Gupta R, Kang M, Bhasin DK, Rana SS, Singh R. Predictors of surgery in patients with severe acute pancreatitis managed by the step-up approach. Ann Surg. 2013;257(4):737–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Walser EM, Nealon WH, Marroquin S, Raza S, Hernandez JA, Vasek J. Sterile fluid collections in acute pancreatitis: catheter drainage versus simple aspiration. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2006;29(1):102–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gupta P, Gupta J, Kumar C, et al. Aggressive Percutaneous Catheter Drainage Protocol for Necrotic Pancreatic Collections [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 5]. Dig Dis Sci. 2020.
  89. 89.
    Gupta P, Koshi S, Samanta J, Mandavdhare H, Sharma V, Sinha SK, Dutta U and Kochhar R: Kissing catheter technique for percutaneous catheter drainage of necrotic pancreatic collections in acute pancreatitis. Exp Ther Med. 2020;20:2311–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pankaj Gupta
    • 1
  • Pratyaksha Rana
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiodiagnosis and ImagingPostgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)ChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations