Private Matter

  • A. J. Angulo


During World War II, the State, War, and Treasury Departments had years—approximately three years—to plan and prepare for the occupation of Germany and Japan. Despite the absence of presiden¬tial leadership or the changing of administrations, these departments knew what was coming. They knew they’d be called upon to develop a postconflict plan to help stabilize the social, political, and economic order in both countries when the time came. Such was not the case for Iraq during what the Bush administration dubbed the “war on terror.” Serious disagreements arose between state’s Colin Powell and the Defense Department’s Donald Rumsfeld, but in the end no res¬ignations came forward and the idea of invading and occupying Iraq with less than three months of planning prevailed. The administra¬tion alleged a connection between Iraq’s Saddam Hussein and the Al-Qaeda network. It also alleged connections between Hussein and weapons grade nuclear material, or “yellow cake” uranium powder from Nigerian dealers. Although UN inspectors were on the ground, touring and scouring the country for evidence of weapons develop¬ments, the US government, media, and advisors to the president pressed forward. The link connecting the radical, Islamic fundamen¬talist group and the Arab state—that allegedly sought, if not already possessed, weapons of mass destruction—served as the primary pre¬text for the invasion and eventual occupation of Iraq.1


Bush Administration Private Matter Defense Department Treasury Department Democracy Promotion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sources that address the topic of education in Iraq include the following: Pratrap Chatterjee, Iraq, Inc.: A Profitable Occupation (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004);Google Scholar
  2. Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005);Google Scholar
  3. Eric Herring, Iraq in Fragments: The Occupation and Its Legacy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006);Google Scholar
  4. Patrick Cockburn, The Occupation: War and Resistance in Iraq (New York: Verso, 2007);Google Scholar
  5. Dahr Jamail, Beyond the Green Zone: Dispatches from an Unembedded Journalist in Occupied Iraq (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2007);Google Scholar
  6. John Agresto, Mugged by Reality: The Liberation of Iraq and the Failure of Good Intentions (New York: Encounter Books, 2007);Google Scholar
  7. Ali A. Allawi, The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008);Google Scholar
  8. James Dobbin, Occupying Iraq: A History of the Coalition Provisional Authority (Santa Monica: Rand, 2009);Google Scholar
  9. Joy Gordon, Invisible War: The United States and the Iraq Sanctions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010);Google Scholar
  10. Steven Carlton-Ford and Morten G. Ender, Handbook of War and Society: Iraq and Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2011);Google Scholar
  11. Christian Parenti, “Fables of Reconstruction,” The Nation (August 30/September 6, 2004), 16–19.Google Scholar
  12. See also Center for Public Integrity, “Windfalls of War: Creative Associates International, Inc.” (Unpublished document, Washington, DC); Mary Ann Zehr, “Schools Open in Iraq, After Two Week Delay,” Education Week 24 (October 13, 2004);Google Scholar
  13. “Iraq Gets Approval to Control Destiny of School System,” Education Week (April 4, 2004); “Creative Associates Gets New Iraq Contract,” Education Week (July 14, 2004); “World Bank Joins School Rebuilding Campaign,” Education Week (April 14, 2004);Valerie J. Brown, “Reconstructing the Environment in Iraq,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (June 2004);Google Scholar
  14. Robin Fields, “Iraq Ministry of Education Withholds Approval for Private Assyrian School,” The Los Angeles Times (February 9, 2005);Google Scholar
  15. David Morris, “Criticism Grows of No-Bid Work for Iraq Reconstruction,” Congress Daily (April 16, 2004);Google Scholar
  16. “Foreign Affairs: Iraq by the Numbers,” Atlantic Monthly (July/August 2004); John Prados, Hoodwinked: The Documents that Reveal How Bush Sold Us a War (New York: The New Press, 2004);Google Scholar
  17. Michael Smerconish, “A Rush to War?,” The Philadelphia Inquirer (February 20, 2011).Google Scholar
  18. Significant insights into life in occupied Iraq from a soldier’s perspective offered in the following: Paul Rieckhoff, Chasing Ghosts: Failures and Facades in Iraq: A Soldier’s Perspective (New York: NAL Caliber, 2007);Google Scholar
  19. Kayla Williams, Love My Rifle More than You: Young and Female in the U.S. Army (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006).Google Scholar
  20. 3.
    Jaqueline Ismael, Tareq Y. Ishmael, and Raymond William Baker, “Iraq and Human Development: Culture, Education, and the Globalization of Hope,” Arab Studies Quarterly 26 (2004), 49–66;Google Scholar
  21. Brian Whitaker, “Free to Do Bad Things,” The Guardian, April 12, 2003.Google Scholar
  22. 5.
    In his Wall Street Journal op-ed of June 20, 2003, Bremer announced his intentions of conducting a “wholesale reallocation of resources and people from state control to private enterprise” in Iraq; Morris, “Criticism Grows of No-Bid Work,” 3; Assistant Inspector General Bruce N. Crandlemire to Wendy Chamberlin and Timothy T. Beans, June 6, 2003, Office of the Inspector General, “USAID’s Compliance with Federal Regulations in Awarding the Iraq Education Sector Contract,” USAID (Memorandum, 03–001), 3, 8, 4; Timothy T. Beans and Wendy Chamberlin to Everett Mosely, Henry L. Barrett, and Bruce N. Crandlemire, June 23, 2003, Management Bureau, Office of Procurement, “USAID Compliance with Federal Regulations in Awarding the Iraq Education Contract: IG Review No. EDG-C-00–03–00011–00,” USAID (Unnumbered Memorandum), 7, 2; on crony capitalism, see Chatterjee, Iraq, Inc .; and Allison Stranger, One Nation under Contract: The Outsourcing of American Power and the Future of Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009);Google Scholar
  23. on Bremer and free-market ideology, see Michael Schwartz, War without End: The Iraq War in Context (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2008), 38.Google Scholar
  24. 6.
    Kenneth J. Saltman, “Creative Associates International: Corporate Education and ‘Democracy Promotion’ in Iraq,” The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies 28 (2006), 35, 37, 40–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter Dougherty, “Building Democracies, Free Market for a Small Profit: D.C. Executive Combines Business Consultancy with Community Ideals,” Washington Times (May 14, 2001); Center for Public Integrity, “Windfalls of War: Creative Associates International” (Unpublished Document, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
  26. 10.
    Ismael et al., “Iraq and Human Development,” 56–57; Delwin A. Roy, “The Educational System of Iraq,” Middle Eastern Studies 29 (1993), 167–197;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Office of Inspector General, “Follow-up Audit of USAID/Iraq’s Education Activities [Audit Report No. E-267–07–003-P]” (February 4, 2007), 1–11; Dennis J. Halliday, The Impact of the UN Sanctions on the People of Iraq (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999);Google Scholar
  28. Christina Asquith, “Turning the Page on Iraq’s History,” Christian Science Monitor (November 4, 2003);Google Scholar
  29. Agustin V. De Santisteban, “Sanctions, War, Occupation and the De-Development of Education in Iraq,” International Review of Education 51 (2005), 60–63;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. on the politicization of Iraq’s texts under the Ba’athist regime, see Jonathan Zimmerman, “Iraq’s Textbooks—and Ours,” Washington Post (July 13, 2003).Google Scholar
  31. 9.
    Stephen Phillips, “Post-War Contracts Attacked,” The Times Educational Supplement (April 4, 2003); US Agency for International Development, “Creative Associates”; Center for Public Integrity, “Windfalls of War: Creative Associates International, Inc.” (Unpublished Document, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
  32. 10.
    Kenneth J. Saltman, “Corporate Education and “Democracy Promotion Overseas: The Case of Creative Associates International in Iraq, 2003–4,” in Noah Sobe, ed., American Post-Conflict Educational Reform: From the Spanish-American War to Iraq (New York: Palgrave, 2009), 240–241.Google Scholar
  33. 11.
    Inspector General, “Audit of USAID/Iraq’s Basic Education Activities,” 3; Inspector General, “Follow-up,” 2; “Foreign Affairs: Iraq by the Numbers,” Atlantic Monthly (July/August 2004), 60; Zehr, “Schools Open in Iraq,” 6–7.Google Scholar
  34. 23.
    John Ehrenberg, J. Patrice McSherry, Jose Ramon Sanchez, and Caroleen Marji Sayej, eds., The Iraq Papers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 1977–198;Google Scholar
  35. Sheryl Tappan, Shock and Awe in Fort Worth: How the U.S. Army Rigged the ‘Free and Open Competition’ to Replace Halliburton’s Sole Source Oil Field in Iraq (San Mateo: CA, Pourquoi Press, 2004), 18;Google Scholar
  36. Jim Landers, “Author Says Pentagon Favored Halliburton Houston Firm Joins Corps of Engineers in Defending Contracts,” Dallas Morning News (September 11, 2004).Google Scholar
  37. 24.
    Robin Fields, “Iraq Ministry of Education Withholds Approval for Private Assyrian School” Los Angeles Times (February 9, 2005).Google Scholar
  38. 25.
    David Bacon, “Unionbusting, Iraqi-Style,” Middle East Online (October 10, 2010);Google Scholar
  39. Saba Jerges, “Iraqi Oil Workers Postpone May 10 Strike, Deliver Ultimatum on Pay, Profit-Sharing,” Platts Oilgram News (May 11, 2007);Google Scholar
  40. Danny Fortson, “Oil Giants are Itching to Invade Iraq: The Big Players Have Been Shut Out Since Nationalisation in 1972, Now They See Their chance to Get In,” The Sunday Times [London] (December 28, 2008).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. J. Angulo 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Angulo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations