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Private Matter

  • A. J. Angulo
Chapter
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Abstract

During World War II, the State, War, and Treasury Departments had years—approximately three years—to plan and prepare for the occupation of Germany and Japan. Despite the absence of presiden¬tial leadership or the changing of administrations, these departments knew what was coming. They knew they’d be called upon to develop a postconflict plan to help stabilize the social, political, and economic order in both countries when the time came. Such was not the case for Iraq during what the Bush administration dubbed the “war on terror.” Serious disagreements arose between state’s Colin Powell and the Defense Department’s Donald Rumsfeld, but in the end no res¬ignations came forward and the idea of invading and occupying Iraq with less than three months of planning prevailed. The administra¬tion alleged a connection between Iraq’s Saddam Hussein and the Al-Qaeda network. It also alleged connections between Hussein and weapons grade nuclear material, or “yellow cake” uranium powder from Nigerian dealers. Although UN inspectors were on the ground, touring and scouring the country for evidence of weapons develop¬ments, the US government, media, and advisors to the president pressed forward. The link connecting the radical, Islamic fundamen¬talist group and the Arab state—that allegedly sought, if not already possessed, weapons of mass destruction—served as the primary pre¬text for the invasion and eventual occupation of Iraq.1

Keywords

Bush Administration Private Matter Defense Department Treasury Department Democracy Promotion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Sources that address the topic of education in Iraq include the following: Pratrap Chatterjee, Iraq, Inc.: A Profitable Occupation (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004);Google Scholar
  2. Larry Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005);Google Scholar
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  20. 3.
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  22. 5.
    In his Wall Street Journal op-ed of June 20, 2003, Bremer announced his intentions of conducting a “wholesale reallocation of resources and people from state control to private enterprise” in Iraq; Morris, “Criticism Grows of No-Bid Work,” 3; Assistant Inspector General Bruce N. Crandlemire to Wendy Chamberlin and Timothy T. Beans, June 6, 2003, Office of the Inspector General, “USAID’s Compliance with Federal Regulations in Awarding the Iraq Education Sector Contract,” USAID (Memorandum, 03–001), 3, 8, 4; Timothy T. Beans and Wendy Chamberlin to Everett Mosely, Henry L. Barrett, and Bruce N. Crandlemire, June 23, 2003, Management Bureau, Office of Procurement, “USAID Compliance with Federal Regulations in Awarding the Iraq Education Contract: IG Review No. EDG-C-00–03–00011–00,” USAID (Unnumbered Memorandum), 7, 2; on crony capitalism, see Chatterjee, Iraq, Inc .; and Allison Stranger, One Nation under Contract: The Outsourcing of American Power and the Future of Foreign Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009);Google Scholar
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  24. 6.
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  26. 10.
    Ismael et al., “Iraq and Human Development,” 56–57; Delwin A. Roy, “The Educational System of Iraq,” Middle Eastern Studies 29 (1993), 167–197;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  31. 9.
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  32. 10.
    Kenneth J. Saltman, “Corporate Education and “Democracy Promotion Overseas: The Case of Creative Associates International in Iraq, 2003–4,” in Noah Sobe, ed., American Post-Conflict Educational Reform: From the Spanish-American War to Iraq (New York: Palgrave, 2009), 240–241.Google Scholar
  33. 11.
    Inspector General, “Audit of USAID/Iraq’s Basic Education Activities,” 3; Inspector General, “Follow-up,” 2; “Foreign Affairs: Iraq by the Numbers,” Atlantic Monthly (July/August 2004), 60; Zehr, “Schools Open in Iraq,” 6–7.Google Scholar
  34. 23.
    John Ehrenberg, J. Patrice McSherry, Jose Ramon Sanchez, and Caroleen Marji Sayej, eds., The Iraq Papers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 1977–198;Google Scholar
  35. Sheryl Tappan, Shock and Awe in Fort Worth: How the U.S. Army Rigged the ‘Free and Open Competition’ to Replace Halliburton’s Sole Source Oil Field in Iraq (San Mateo: CA, Pourquoi Press, 2004), 18;Google Scholar
  36. Jim Landers, “Author Says Pentagon Favored Halliburton Houston Firm Joins Corps of Engineers in Defending Contracts,” Dallas Morning News (September 11, 2004).Google Scholar
  37. 24.
    Robin Fields, “Iraq Ministry of Education Withholds Approval for Private Assyrian School” Los Angeles Times (February 9, 2005).Google Scholar
  38. 25.
    David Bacon, “Unionbusting, Iraqi-Style,” Middle East Online (October 10, 2010);Google Scholar
  39. Saba Jerges, “Iraqi Oil Workers Postpone May 10 Strike, Deliver Ultimatum on Pay, Profit-Sharing,” Platts Oilgram News (May 11, 2007);Google Scholar
  40. Danny Fortson, “Oil Giants are Itching to Invade Iraq: The Big Players Have Been Shut Out Since Nationalisation in 1972, Now They See Their chance to Get In,” The Sunday Times [London] (December 28, 2008).Google Scholar

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© A. J. Angulo 2012

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