Mujahidin, Civil War, and the Taliban

  • Hafizullah Emadi


Growing personal and political differences over the future course of development between the Parcham and Khalq factions of the pro-Soviet ruling party Hizb-e-Watan, formerly known as the Peoples’ Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), and escalating armed struggle by U.S.-backed Islamic fundamentalists known as the Mujahidin (Islamic warriors) led to the collapse of Najibullah’s rule on April 27, 1992. Prior to the disintegration of the regime, Najibullah was forced to endorse the United Nations (UN) peace proposal that transferred power to a coalition of Islamic parties. Najibullah agreed to surrender power, leave the country, and settle in India, on the condition that financial assistance be made available to him in exile. The amount he requested was for “an honorable living for two generations,” stating “I would not like to live on doles … It was a question of one million U.S. dollars or so which Gen. Zia [al-Haq] personally managed through the courtesy of an Arab country.”1 Najibullah’s dream of a comfortable life in exile did not materialize, as his opponents did not allow him to leave the country, forcing him to seek refuge at the United Nations compound in Kabul on April 16, 1992. He was able to send his wife, Fatana, and three daughters to New Delhi, India, before the situation deteriorated in Kabul.


Saudi Arabia United Nations Political Development Central Intelligence Agency Military Offensive 
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© Hafizullah Emadi 2010

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  • Hafizullah Emadi

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