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Islam and Energy Security

  • Mehrdad Haghayeghi
  • Fred R. von der Mehden
Chapter
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Part of the Euro-Asian Studies book series (EAS)

Abstract

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought into our foreign policy discourse several new concerns, of which Islamic resurgence in Central Asia was considered to be a potentially serious threat. The region’s close proximity to revolutionary Iran, fragmented Afghanistan, and the civil strife in Tajikistan — with its religious underpinnings — shaped our initial understanding of this issue and thus prompted an early visit to the region by the former Secretary of State, James Baker in 1992. On Secretary Baker’s agenda was an unequivocal message to the republican leaders that called for vigilance to curb the spread of Islamic fundamentalism into the region.

Keywords

Energy Security Caspian Region Religious School Economist Intelligence Unit Islamic State 
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Notes

  1. 2.
    Several aspects of the Hanafi School of jurisprudence demonstrate its liberal and tolerant orientation. First, the Hanafis argue that if a Muslim believes in God and the prophethood of Muhammad, but is negligent in performing his religious duties, he is not an infidel. Second, Abu Hanifah believed that the underlying purpose of all Islamic precepts could be understood through rational construction. Therefore, he saw it permissible to carry out Islamic rituals, such as prayer in languages other than Arabic. Third, according to the Hanafi school the principle of socioeconomic necessity overrides the need for religious orthodoxy, thus allowing the postponement or modification of religious duties to accommodate the daily needs of the believer. Fourth, the Hanafi school provides a more tolerant view of matters concerning civil and criminal conduct as compared to the Hanbali, Shafi’I, and Maliki schools. Finally, in addition to the Koran and the Hadith, the Hanafi doctrine places significant emphasis on the role of private opinion and public consensus in reaching decisions that affect the individual and the Muslim community. For more information see: Allamah Shibli Nu’mani, Imam Abu Hanifah: Life and Work (Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1977), pp. 3–4 and 101–2.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    For more information see: Alexander Bennigsen and Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay, Islam in the Soviet Union (New York: Frederick A. Publishers, 1967).Google Scholar
  3. 13.
    For more information see: Mehrdad Haghayeghi, Islam and Politics in Central Asia (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1996), pp. 85–6.Google Scholar
  4. 23.
    See I. P. Kyrgyztan, “Secularism vs Islam”, The World Today, 48:11 (1992) pp. 208–11.Google Scholar
  5. 24.
    N. Andreev, “Kirgiztan: Grappling with Democracy”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist, 50:1 (January–Febuary, 1994) p. 55.Google Scholar
  6. 25.
    D. Hiro, Between Marx and Muhammad: The Changing Face of Central Asia (London: Harper Collins, 1994), pp. 138–9.Google Scholar
  7. 27.
    Quoted in R. Altoma, “The Influence of Islam in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan” in B. Manz (ed.), Central Asia in Historical Perspective (Boulder: Westview, 1994), pp. 175–6.Google Scholar
  8. 32.
    A. Rashid, The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism? (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 100Google Scholar
  9. 33.
    See, for example, Rashid, The Resurgence of Central Asia, pp. 159–186 and B. Rubin, “Tajikstan: From Soviet republic to Russian-Uzbek Protectorate”, in M. Mandlebaum, Central Asia and the World (New York: Council of Foreign Relations, 1994), pp. 207–24Google Scholar
  10. 35.
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  11. 36.
    D. Trofimov, Islam in the Political Culture of the Former Soviet Union (Hamburg: Institut Fur Friedensforschung und Secherheitspolitik, 1995), pp. 21–5Google Scholar
  12. 38.
    V. Piacentini, “Islam: Iranian and Saudi Arabian Religious and Geopolitical Competition”, in A. Ehteshami (ed.), From the Gulf to Central Asia (Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1994), pp. 25–46.Google Scholar
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    Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan (Fourth Quarter 1997), p. 10.Google Scholar
  14. 41.
    M. B. Olcott, “Ethnic Violence in Central Asia: Perceptions and Misperceptions”, in R. Sagdeev and S. Eisenhower (eds.), Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution and Change (Chevy Chase: CPSS Press, 1995), pp. 115–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrdad Haghayeghi
  • Fred R. von der Mehden

There are no affiliations available

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