Advertisement

The Heart of European Integration: the Socio-economic Model between Convergence and National Diversities

  • Mario Telò
Chapter
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

There are two main reasons why we are devoting a chapter to the ‘European socio-economic model’. Firstly, Europe cannot develop its civilian power into a classic military one because it consists of Welfare States that spend about twice what the US does on social security (29.9 per cent of GDP in 2001 compared to 14.2 per cent). This structural level of welfare spending prohibits the type of military expenditure feasible in the US (4 per cent of GDP compared with 2 per cent of European states1). Secondly, this topic is not only extremely relevant to the internal cohesion and quality of democracy within the EU, but is also central to the distinctive identity of the EU within the context of globalization. The EU presents an interesting case study of the tension between, on the one hand, the drive to speed up neoliberal deregulation and, on the other, the attempt to relaunch old and new forms of way of life and common belonging. These are linked to specific interests and social demands, all intent on introducing some kind of regional ‘re-regulation’. Drawing on our 1999 article, Jürgen Habermas synthesized three dimensions of this key question: the deep historical roots of welfare Europe, its ‘constitutional’ dimension and its potential impact on EU identity within the context of globalization.

Keywords

Trade Union European Council Social Dialogue Lisbon Strategy European Research Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    J. Habermas, ‘Why Europe Needs a Constitution’, New Left Review, 11, September—October 2001, pp. 5–26. Habermas refers to the article by M. Teld and P. Magnette, ‘Justice and Solidarity’, in F. Cerrutti and E. Rudolph (eds), A Soul for Europe: on the Political and Cultural Identity of Europeans, vol. 1, Peeters, Leuven, 2001, pp. 73–89. Habermas’s article was previously published in Zeit der Uebergaenge, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M., 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    I. Clark, Globalization and Fragmentation: International Relations in the Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997Google Scholar
  3. J.N. Rosenau, ‘Governance in the Twenty First Century’, Global Governance, 1, 1995, pp. 13–43Google Scholar
  4. see also C. Crouch and W. Streeck, Political Economy of Modem Capitalism. Mapping Convergence and Diversity, Sage, London, 1997Google Scholar
  5. A. Prakash and J.A. Hart (eds), Globalization and Governance, Routledge, London-New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    See A. Laurent, Histoire de l’individualisme, PUF, Paris, 1993Google Scholar
  7. P. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000, Random House, New York, 1987Google Scholar
  8. A. Toynbee, Civilization on Trial, Oxford University Press, New York, 1948.Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    D. Sassoon, One Hundred Years of Socialism: the West European Left in the Twentieth Century, Tauris, London, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. 6.
    Telò and Magnette, ‘Justice and Solidarity’, op. cit., p. 76. See also R. Zoll, Was ist Solidaritaet heute?, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M., 2000 and S. Sternm, Solidarity in Europe, Cambridge University Press (forthcoming). S. Sterne rightly emphasizes the distinctions within each tradition, in particular in the socialist one, between the social democratic notion of ‘solidarity’ and the ‘liberal’ concept of ‘justice’.Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    For the significance of this transformation of the modern state, see G. Ritter, Der Sozialstaat: Entstehung und Entwicklung in internationalen Vergleich, Oldenbourg, Munich, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    P. Rosanvallon, La question syndicale, Calmann-Levy, Paris, 1988.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    P.C. Schmitter, ‘Still the Century of Corporatism?’, Review of Politics, 36, 1974 and ‘Interest Intermediation and Regime Governability in W. Europe and N. America’Google Scholar
  14. in S. Berger (ed.), Organizing Interests in Westem Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    The catholic idea of looking for a third way between socialism and liberal-ism between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was expressed among others by H. Pesch, L. Bourgeois, Ch. Gide and A. Fanfani and initially entailed many ambiguities regarding democracy. J.F. Durand, L’Europe de la Démocratie Chrétienne, Complexe, Brussels, 1995Google Scholar
  16. J.M. Mayeur, Des parties catholiques à la Démocratie chrétienne, Colin, Paris, 1980Google Scholar
  17. M.P. Fogarty, Christian Democracy in Western Europe, 1820–1953, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1957Google Scholar
  18. E. Poulat, Eglise contre bourgeoisie. Introduction au devenir du catholicisme actuel, Costerman, Tournai, 1994Google Scholar
  19. W. Becker and R. Morsey (eds), Christliche Demokratie in Europa, Bohlau, Cologne, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 14.
    J.M. Keynes, The End of ‘Laissez-faire’, London, 1926Google Scholar
  21. R. Skidelsky, Keynes, Oxford University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  22. 15.
    R. Titmuss, Essays on the Welfare State, Allen & Unwin, London, 1958.Google Scholar
  23. 16.
    See the vast comparative literature on the European Welfare States, for example P. Flora and A. Heindenmeyer (eds), The Development of Welfare States in Europe and America, Transaction Books, New Brunswick, NY, 1981Google Scholar
  24. J.H. Goldthorpe (ed.), Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984Google Scholar
  25. P. Baldwin, The Politics of Social Solidarity. Class Bases ofthe European Welfare States, 1875–1975, Cambridge University Press, 1990. As the critical debate: H.L. Wilenski, The Problems and Prospects of the Welfare State’, in Industrial Society and the Welfare State, Macmillan, New York, pp. 5–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. N. Luhmann, Politische Theorie im Wohlfahrtstaat, Olzog Verlag, Munich, 1981.Google Scholar
  27. 17.
    G. Lehmbruch and P.C. Schmitter (eds), Patterns of Corporatist Policy-Making, Sage, London, 1982.Google Scholar
  28. 18.
    M. Albert, Capitalisme contre capitalisme, Seuil, Paris, 1991.Google Scholar
  29. 19.
    On this point, see M. Telò, Le New Deal européen, Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles, 1989.Google Scholar
  30. 20.
    G. Esping-Andersen, The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1990; id. (ed.), Welfare States in Transition. National Adaptations in Global Economics, Sage, London, 1998.Google Scholar
  31. 21.
    W. Beck, L. van den Maesen and A. Walkers (eds), The Social Quality of Europe, Kluwer, Amsterdam, 1997.Google Scholar
  32. 22.
    R. Skidelsky (ed.), Thatcherism, Blackwell, Oxford, 1988.Google Scholar
  33. 23.
    J.P. Fitoussi and P. Rosanvallon, Le nouvel age des inégalités, Seuil, Paris, 1996.Google Scholar
  34. 24.
    N. Luhmann, Politische Theorie im Wohlfahrtstaat, Olzog, Munich, 1981Google Scholar
  35. J. Waddington and R. Hoffmann, Trade Unions in Europe, ETUI, Brussels, 2000.Google Scholar
  36. 25.
    The end of the ‘regulatory state’ was looming. The regulatory state was reclassified as a break between two periods dominated by economic liberal-ism, preceding and following the ‘great transformation’, as the historian K. Polany (The Great Transformation, Rinehart, New York, 1944) termed the birth of the Keynesian state and the end of the self-regulated market under British hegemony.Google Scholar
  37. 26.
    M. Regini (ed.), The Future ofLabour Movements, Sage, London, 1992.Google Scholar
  38. 27.
    European Commission, Employment in Europe, Luxembourg, 1997Google Scholar
  39. and M. Olson, ‘Varieties of Eurosclerosis. The Rise and Decline of Nations since 1982’, IUE J.Monnet Chain Papers, Florence, 1995.Google Scholar
  40. 28.
    P. Cerny, ‘Paradoxes of the Competition State’, European Journal of Political Research, 3, 1997, pp. 100–20Google Scholar
  41. H. Wilke, Supervision Staat, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M., 1997Google Scholar
  42. S. Unseld (ed.), Politik ohne Projeckt?, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a.M., 1993 (in particular, J. Esser, ‘Die Suche nach dem Primat der Politik’, pp. 409–30)Google Scholar
  43. R Voigt (ed.), Des Staates neuer Kleider, Nomos, Baden-Baden, 1998Google Scholar
  44. and F.W. Scharpf, The Problem-Solving Capacity of Multi-level Governance, Schumann Centre, EUI, Florence, 1997.Google Scholar
  45. 31.
    G. Falkner, EU Social Policy in the ‘90s, Routledge, London, 1998Google Scholar
  46. H. Wallace and A. Young, Participation in the European Union, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997.Google Scholar
  47. 32.
    See the articles by G. Therborn (Europe, Scandinavia del mondo’), M. Albert (‘Il capitalismo europeo nel quadro della mondializzazione: convergence e dif-ferenze’), A.S. Milward (L’impossibile fuga dalla storia’), R. Bellamy (Una Repubblica europea?’) and others in M. Telò (ed.), Quale idea d’Europa per il XXI secolo?, special edition of Europa/Europe, 5, Rome, 1999Google Scholar
  48. See also G. Therborn, ‘Europe in the 21st Century: the World’s Scandinavia?’, in P. Gowan and P. Anderson (eds), The Question of Europe, Verso, London, 1999, pp. 357–84.Google Scholar
  49. 33.
    Many authors have written on this topic. See E. Matzer, Der Wohlfahrstaat von Morgen, Campus, Vienna, 1982Google Scholar
  50. A. Touraine, Comment Sortir du libéralisme?, Fayard, Paris, 1999;Google Scholar
  51. A. Giddens, The Third Way, Polity Press, London, 1998Google Scholar
  52. T. Meyer, Die Transformation der Sozialdemokratie, Dietz Verlag, Bonn, 1998Google Scholar
  53. R.A. Dahl, Dilemmas ofPluralist Democracy: Autonomy vs. Control, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1982.Google Scholar
  54. 34.
    J. Hoffman (ed.), The Solidarity Dilemma: Globalization, Europeanization, and Trade Unions, ETUI, Brussels, 2002.Google Scholar
  55. 37.
    The Portuguese Presidency recruited various experts in the fields. Their find-ings are published in M.J. Rodrigues (ed.), The New Knowledge Economy in Europe. A Strategy for International Competitiveness and Social Cohesion, Elgar, Northampton, 2002 (articles by R. Boyer, G. Esping-Andersen, M. Telò, A. Lundvall, L. Soete, R. Lindley and M. Castells).Google Scholar
  56. 38.
    See F.W. Scharpf and V. Schmidt (eds), Welfare and Work in the Open Economy, vol. I, From Vulnerability to Competitiveness, vol. II, Diverse Responses to Common Challenges, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000; M. Ferrera, A. Hemerijck and M. Rhodes, The Future ofSocial Europe, Oeiras, Celta, 2001; V.A. Schmidt, The Futures of European Capitalism, Oxford University Press, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. and W. Streeck, Neo-Voluntarism: a New European Social Policy Regime?, in G. Marks, F.W. Scharpf, P.C. Schmitter and W. Streeck (eds), Governance in the EU, Sage, London, 1996, pp. 64–93.Google Scholar
  58. 39.
    European Commission, Growth, Competitiveness, Employment White Book, in EC Bulletin, supplement 6, 1993.Google Scholar
  59. 44.
    P. Pochet and C. De la Porte, Building Social Europe through the Open Method of Co-ordination, P. Lang, Brussels, 2000Google Scholar
  60. J. Goetschy, ‘The European Employment Strategy’, ECSA Review, 13, 3, 2001Google Scholar
  61. J. Goetschy and P. Pochet, ‘Regards croisés sur la stratégie européenne de l’emploi’, in P. Magnette and E. Remade (eds), Le nouveau modèle européen, Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles, 2000, vol. II, pp. 79–97. D. Hodson and I. Maher, ‘The Open Method as a Mode of Governance: the Case of Soft Economic Policy Co-ordination’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 39, 4, pp. 719–46Google Scholar
  62. A. Larsson, ‘The Social Agenda from Lisbon to Barcelona. Achievements and Expectations’, paper, J. Delors Centre, Lisbon, 31 January 2002Google Scholar
  63. F.W. Scharpf, The European Social Model: Coping with the Challenge ofDiversity, EUI, Florence, March 2002; M. Telò, ‘Strengths and Limits of the OMC’, in Weiler, Begg and Peterson (eds), Integration in an Expanding European Union, op. cit.Google Scholar
  64. L. Magnusson, P. Pochet and J. Zeitln, The OMC in Action, P. Lang, Brussels, 2004; and the special issue of the Journal of European Public Policy, edited by S. Borras and B. Grere, ‘The OMC in the EU’, vol. II, 2004.Google Scholar
  65. 50.
    On the question of European multilevel governance, see F.W. Scharpf, The Problem-Solving Capacity of Multilevel Governance, IUE, Florence, 1997Google Scholar
  66. G. Majone (ed.), Regulating Europe, Routledge, London, 1998; Marks, Scharpf, Schmitter and Streeck (eds), Governance in the EU, op. cit. and in particular P.C. Schmitter, ‘Imaging the Future of European Polity’, pp. 121–49.Google Scholar
  67. Also, B. Kohler-Koch (ed.), Regieren in Enterentzen Raume, Westdeutscher Verlag, Onladen, 1998.Google Scholar
  68. 55.
    ‘Le Conseil européen s’est autoproclamé gouvernement économique’, declared Jacques Delors, after Lisbon in March 2000. ‘By strengthening its political role balancing that of the European Central Bank, the European Council has given its response to the problem of EU leadership’ stressed the Swedish Prime Minister, Göran Persson (European Bulletin, 23–25 March 2000). The European Council has proclaimed: ‘l’Etat c’est moi’ indeed. This exceptional role of the European Council recalls the positive observation made by Jean Monnet at its birth, in 1974, when it was intended as a ‘provisional govemment’ (see J. Monnet, Mémoires, Fayard, Paris, 1976, pp. 591–2). On the Council of Ministers and the European CouncilGoogle Scholar
  69. see J.P. Jaquet and D. Simon, ‘The Constitutional and Juridical Role of the European Council’, in J.M. Hoscheit and W. Wessels (eds), The European Council 1974–1986: Evaluation and Prospects, IEAP, Maastricht, 1988Google Scholar
  70. J. Cloos, G. Reinsech, D. Vignes and J. Wyland, Le traité de Maastricht, genèse, analyse et commentaires, Bruylant, Brussels, 1993Google Scholar
  71. F. Hayes-Renshaw and H. Wallace, The Council of Ministers, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1997;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. M. Telò, ‘The Council of the EU: the Decision-Making after Nice’, in P. Zervakis and P. Cullen (eds), The Post-Nice Process: Towards a European Constitution?, Nomos, Baden-Baden, 2002.Google Scholar
  73. 56.
    See the Synthesis Report, Communication from the Commission to the Spring European Council in Barcelona. The Lisbon Strategy. Making Change Happen, Brussels, 15 January 2002.Google Scholar
  74. 58.
    M.J. Rodrigues, European Policies for a Knowledge Economy, E1gar, Cheltenham, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. B. Van Pottelsberghe, ‘Les politiques de science et de technologie et l’objectif de Lisbonne’, Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Économique, 2004, pp. 69–86Google Scholar
  76. M. Telò, ‘Préface’ to M.J. Rodrigues (ed.), Vers une société européenne de la connaissance, Editions de l’ULB, Brussels, 2004, pp. vii–xvii.Google Scholar
  77. 60.
    R. King (ed.), The University in the Global Age, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.Google Scholar
  78. 61.
    J. Lembke, ‘The Politics of Galileo’, Pittsburgh University European Policy Paper, no. 7, 2001.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mario Telò 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario Telò
    • 1
  1. 1.Brussels Free University, ULBBelgium

Personalised recommendations