Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution in Practice
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This chapter builds on the theoretical critique with a comparative examination of policy practice, presenting general patterns of peace agreements involving one or more of the four key incentives of interest here: economic, political, security, and territorial. The case studies are necessarily short, but the insights from the comparative analysis are fleshed out in the three more detailed country studies that form the core of this book (Chapters 3–5). Beginning with a key case of ‘success’ — El Salvador — the chapter considers the specific tools of inclusion offered in a number of critical cases, and develops hypotheses as to why they worked or did not, and later considers a key case of ‘failure’ — Sierra Leone. The purported success of incentives in El Salvador and the apparent failure of similar, and even more extensive, incentives in Sierra Leone, bracket the discussion, which surveys a total of 25 cases since the end of the Cold War. The two key case studies draw on my extensive fieldwork in those two countries. While each case study focuses on a national conflict, and a national process, I recognize that many conflicts are transborder or regionalized, and that this poses unique problems for negotiators. While negotiations may be bounded by state borders, the flows of arms, refugees, and fighters are not, and neighboring leaders, whether of states or armed groups, may actively support fighters elsewhere.
KeywordsArmed Group Security Force Peace Process Khmer Rouge Peace Agreement
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