Pakistan’s Musharraf: the War on Terror and Fueling the Jihad, 2001–2005

  • Andrea K. Grove


Pakistan hangs in a precarious balance. As a nuclear power having fought three wars over Kashmir with nuclear India, as the home of radical jihad groups nurtured there since the 1970s, and as a hideout for al Qaeda and Taliban fighters since the U.S.-led war on neighboring Afghanistan in late 2001, Pakistan’s actions in international politics influence both regional and international stability. In turn, Pakistan’s foreign policy is intimately entwined with its domestic political context. Repeating a history of failure of democratically elected governments, General Pervez Musharraf took power in a military coup in 1999. Both international isolation and seemingly insurmountable domestic challenges confronted the new leader immediately. Despite this grim situation, Musharraf managed to manipulate domestic and international factors to his advantage. While the cases of Iraq, South Africa, Northern Ireland, and Zimbabwe were also significant to regional security and U.S. interests, Pakistan in the Musharraf era is viewed by many as absolutely critical in the American policy to fight global terrorism. Policy makers have not sufficiently viewed Musharraf as engaging in intermestic politics and thus have seriously misjudged Pakistan’s role in this “war on terror.”


Foreign Policy Parliamentary Election Military Coup Islamic World Islamic State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    International Crisis Group, Conflict History: Pakistan, 2005 (18 August 2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anatol Lieven, “The Pressures on Pakistan,” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 1 (January/February 2002): 106–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Husain Haqqani, “The Role of Islam in Pakistan’s Future,” The Washington Quarterly 28, no. 1 (2004): 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Husain Haqqani, Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005): 93.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Dennis Kux, The United States and Pakistan, 1947–2000: Disenchanted Allies (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2001): 359–360.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Alex Alexiev, “The Pakistani Time Bomb,” Commentary 115, no. 3 (March 2003): 46–52.Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Stephen Philip Cohen, The Idea of Pakistan (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution: 2004): 183.Google Scholar
  8. 17.
    Mary Anne Weaver, Pakistan: In the Shadow of Jihad and Afghanistan (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2002): 27.Google Scholar
  9. 26.
    Mohammed Ayoob, “Southwest Asia After the Taliban,” Survival 44, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 55–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 27.
    Owen Bennett Jones, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002): 70–73.Google Scholar
  11. 40.
    Sukakshan Mohan, Pakistan Under Musharraf (Delhi: Indian Publishers Distributors, 2000): 312.Google Scholar
  12. 46.
    Bashir Ahmad Khan and Faisal Bari, “Pakistan: Economic Challenges for a New Millennium,” in Pakistan on the Brink, edited by Craig Baxter (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004): 132, 134.Google Scholar
  13. 48.
    Ayesha Siddiqa Agha, “Pakistan’s Security: Problems of Linearity,” South Asia Journal 3 (January–March 2004): 36.Google Scholar
  14. 51.
    Hasan-Askari Rizvi, “Pakistan in 1999: Back to Square One,” Asian Survey 40, no. 1 (January/February 2000): 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 55.
    Aqil Shah, “Democracy on Hold in Pakistan,” Journal of Democracy 13, no. 1 (2002): 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 56.
    Pamela Constable, “Pakistan’s Predicament,” Journal of Democracy 12, no. 1 (2001): 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 77.
    Teresita C. Schaffer, “U.S. Influence on Pakistan: Can Partners Have Divergent Priorities?” The Washington Quarterly 26, no. 1 (2002–2003): 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 139.
    Ian Talbot, “Pakistan in 2003: Political Deadlock and Continuing Uncertainties,” Asian Survey 44, no. 1 (2003): 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Andrea K. Grove 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea K. Grove

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations