Concluding Observations

  • Andrea K. Grove


An Irish school teacher turned politician in the midst of ethnopolitical chaos, a former CIA director challenged to shape a “new world order,” an old African liberation fighter beset by a new revolution, a caged hero determined to free his people without bloodshed from a brutal racist prison, and an international pariah desperate to engage with the world in order to save his country: We have now met these leaders and explored their impossible situations during the cases chosen for this study. Indeed, whether they were embedded in democratic, authoritarian, or transitioning systems, in a Western, Islamic, or African culture, all of the leaders defied the constraints of their situations.


Foreign Policy External Actor International Audience Impossible Situation Nuclear Weapon Program 
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Copyright information

© Andrea K. Grove 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea K. Grove

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