Advertisement

The Dual System of Land Use Policy and Its Related Problems in Contemporary China

  • Xiaogang Deng
  • Lening Zhang
  • Andrea Leverentz
Chapter

Abstract

Land ownership is a crucial issue. Nearly all social struggles in history are “essentially for the ownership and use of land” (Weber 1988, 343). Throughout China’s history, land and its distribution have been central to any understanding of the country’s complex relationship between power, politics, and economics (Brenner 2004). Various land tenure policies provide an insight to the historical changes and to gauge rapidly changing social and economic landscape in contemporary China. China’s dual land tenure system has become a critical source of debate in China’s rising housing costs and widespread official corruption in land transactions. The dual system of land use reflects the transitional nature of Chinese economic structure that attempts to maintain centralized administrative control over land use and at the same time allows land allocation to those who can pay the highest price for commercial lease. The dual system creates an unparalleled opportunity for widespread corruption and various social problems.

Keywords

Real Estate Dual System Public Ownership Land Acquisition Social Unrest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Boston Consulting Group. 2007. Tapping human assets to sustain growth: 2007 Report. Available at: http://www.bcg.com/impact_expertise/publications/files/Tapping_Human_Assets_GW_Sept_2007.pdf (accessed November 15, 2007).Google Scholar
  2. Brandt, L., S. Rozelle, and M. A. Turner. 2004. Local government behavior and property right formation in rural China. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 160: 627–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brenner, M. 2004. The evolution of land distribution in reform-era China. Political Economy Research Institute of University of Massachusetts. Available at: http://62.237.131.23/research/2004–2005/2004–2005–6/cip2/papers/brenner.pdf (accessed October 20, 2007).Google Scholar
  4. Chan, N. 2003. Land acquisition compensation in China: Problems and answers. International Real Estate Review 6: 136–152.Google Scholar
  5. Chen, J. H. 2006. When Ren Zhiqiang defends excessive profit in real estate, What does it reveal? The black-hole in the housing cost. Shanghai Securities Daily. October 24. Available at: http://www.chinanews.com.cn/estate (accessed October 20, 2006).
  6. Chen, W. 2002. Warning signs of increasing rural vs. urban inequality. China Youth Daily November 1.Google Scholar
  7. Cheung, S. 1996. A simplistic general equilibrium theory of corruption. Contemporary Economic Policy 14: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clarke, S. 1982. Marx, marginalism and modern sociology: From Adam Smith to Max Weber. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  9. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China of 1975 and 1982.Google Scholar
  10. Ding, C. R. 2003. Land policy reform in China: Assessment and prospects. Land Use Policy 20: 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. —. 2007. Policy and praxis of land acquisition in China. Land Use Policy 24: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Editorial Office of China Land and Resources Almanac. 1999–2006. China Land and Resources Almanac 1999–2006. Beijing, China: Editorial Office of China Land and Resources Almanac.Google Scholar
  13. Guo, Y. K. 2007. Government’s dilemma: The investigative report on Longquan land conflict. China Lawyer Observation Network March 5. Available at: http://www.ccwlawyer.com/center.asp?idd=936 (In Chinese) (accessed November 24, 2007).Google Scholar
  14. Hu, Yi. 2007. The central government investigates the collaboration between officials and business: Major shock for Shanghai real estate industry. New Century Weekly. Available at: http://www.dzwww.com/synr/jdxw/200705/t20070523_2176175.htm (In Chinese) (accessed October 28, 2007).
  15. Jin, H. H., Y. Y. Qian, and B. R. Weingast. 2005. Regional decentralization and fiscal incentives: Federalism, Chinese style. Journal of Public Economics 89: 1719–1742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keidel, A. 2006. China’s social unrest: The story behind the stories. Carnegie Endowment Policy Brief Number 48, September. Available at: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/pb48_keidel_final.pdf (accessed November 12, 2007).Google Scholar
  17. Kremzner, M. T. 1998. Managing urban land in China: The emerging legal framework and its role in development. Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 7: 611–654.Google Scholar
  18. Kreuger, A. 1974. The political economy of rent-seeking society. American Economic Review 64: 292–303.Google Scholar
  19. Larson, K. M. 1998. A lesson in ingenuity: Chinese farmers, the state, and the reclamation of farmland for most any use. Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 7: 831–857.Google Scholar
  20. Lei, A. X. 2005. It is high time for more complete marketization of land transaction. Land Resource Utilization, Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Land. Available at: http://www.mlr.gov.cn/zt/2005tudiriluntan/leiaixian.htm (In Chinese) (accessed August 16, 2007).Google Scholar
  21. Li, H. 2004. From revolution to reform: A comparative study of China and Mexico. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  22. Li, W. W., K. Li, and D. K. Xie. 2004. Farmer without land, work without job, minimum insurance without Qualification. Ningbo Daily March 3: A4.Google Scholar
  23. Lu, M. and C. Wiemer. 2007. Social equity in China: Building a Xiaokang society in an all-round way. Outreach Development November. Available at http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/textonly.asp?id=354 (accessed November 16, 2007).
  24. Lu, X. B. 2000a. Booty socialism, bureau-preneurs, and the state in transition: Organizational corruption in China. Comparative Politics 32: 273–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. —. 2000b. Cadre and corruption: The organizational involution of the Chinese Communist Party. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Natural Resources and Land. 2007. No one should attempt to lift the gate of land resource illegally. Ministry of Natural Resources and Land’s Web site. Available at: http://www.mlr.gov.cn (In Chinese) (accessed July 8, 2007).Google Scholar
  27. Nee, V. 1992. Organizational dynamics of market transition: Hybrid forms, property rights, and mixed economy in China. Administrative Science Quarterly 37: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olofsgård, A. and Z. Zahran. 2007. Corruption and political and economic reforms: A structural breaks approach. Economics Department, Georgetown University. June 1. Available at: http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/afo2/papers/corrjune12007.pdf Google Scholar
  29. Oi, J. C. 1995. The role of the local state in China’s transitional economy. China Quarterly 144: 1132–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Palomar, J. 2004. Land tenure security as a market stimulator in China. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 12: 7–74.Google Scholar
  31. Phan, P. N. 2005. Enriching the land or the political elite? Lessons from China on democratization of the urban renewal process. Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 14: 607–657.Google Scholar
  32. Pils, E. 2005. Land disputes, rights assertion, and social unrest in China: A case from Sichuan Columbia. Journal of Asian Law 19 (Spring): 235–292.Google Scholar
  33. Ping, X. Q. 2006. Evaluation of effectiveness of China’s local budget system and design of indicators. Working Paper Series No. C20006018. Center for Economic Research, Beijing University. Available at: http://www.ccer.edu.cn/download/7184–1.pdf (In Chinese) (accessed May 28, 2007).Google Scholar
  34. Ravillion, M. and S. H. Chen. 2004. China’s (uneven) progress against poverty. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3408 .Washington DC.Google Scholar
  35. Shao, D. S. 2007. Corruption in real estate and corruption of power capital in China. In The issue of corruption during the drastic social change in China. Available at Guang Ming Daily: http://guancha.gmw.cn/show.aspx?id=4702 (accessed October 30, 2007).Google Scholar
  36. Solnick, S. L. 1996. The breakdown of hierarchies in the Soviet Union and China. World Politics 48: 209–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Southern Daily. 2007. Hu Xing’s corruption case in court: More than 10 million bribery in a single transaction. July 9. Available at http://www.southcn.com/news (In Chinese) (accessed November 15, 2007).
  38. Svendsen, G. T. 2003. Social capital, corruption and economic growth: Eastern and Western Europe. Working Paper 03–21. Aarhus, Denmark. Available at http://www.hha.dk/nat/wper/03–21_gts.pdf (accessed July 28, 2007).Google Scholar
  39. Walder, A. 2003. Sociological dimensions of China’s economic transition: Organization, stratification, and social mobility. The Asia/Pacific Research Center of Stanford University. Working Paper. Available at http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20208/Walder_Sociological.pdf (accessed December 5, 2007).Google Scholar
  40. Wang, F., T. O. Tai, and Y. J. Wang. 2006. A decade of rising poverty in urban China: Who are more likely to fall under. Working Paper 06–14. Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine. Available at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132&context=csd (accessed June 20, 2007).Google Scholar
  41. Wang, X. L. 2007. The current status of national income distribution and “grey” income. Research Report of National Economy Research Institute of China Reform Foundation. Available at http://bbs.people.com.cn/postDetail.do?view=1&id=2529141 (In Chinese) (accessed June 20, 2007).Google Scholar
  42. Weber, M. 1988. The agrarian sociology of ancient civilizations. Trans. F. R. I. Verso: London.Google Scholar
  43. Wright, M. 1951. The Chinese peasant and communism. Pacific Affairs 24: 256–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang, X. B. 2007. International and urban affairs: Asymmetric property rights in China’s economic growth. William Mitchell Law Review 33: 567–589.Google Scholar
  45. Zhao, X. 2005. Comment on China’s contemporary land tenure system. State Asset Management and Monitoring Commission of the State Council. Available at http://www.ccrs.org.cn (In Chinese) (accessed August 14, 2007).Google Scholar
  46. Zhou, T. Y. 2004. Protecting farmers’ rights in land transactions. China Economic Times February 10. Available at http://news.xinhuanet.com/house/2004–02/10/content_1307434.htm (In Chinese) (accessed November 5, 2007).

Copyright information

© Reza Hasmath and Jennifer Hsu 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaogang Deng
  • Lening Zhang
  • Andrea Leverentz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations