Ideologies, Ideas and Political Slogans in the Formation of George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy

  • Robert J. Jackson
  • Philip Towle


Attempts to resolve the contradictions between concepts in American foreign policy and global realities gave rise to vociferous and polarized debates from the 1990s onwards. Politicians and analysts argued continually, using traditional concepts and tired clichés. The debates appeared to go nowhere. Some discouraged critics opined that this whole endeavour had produced a mental slum from which nothing could be rescued. However, such pessimism was misplaced. We do need a vocabulary and conceptual frameworks to determine which ideas are significant in understanding the pattern of world politics and how the United States approaches them. As Alexis de Tocqueville pointed out, politics is a reflection of habits of mind, not just institutions.1 Intellectual constructs or theories of international relations are similar. The broad frameworks may not explain all the facts, but at any particular time those that are regarded as the most conclusive can have a significant effect on policies.


United States Foreign Policy Middle East International Relation Foreign Affair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Robert J. Jackson and Philip Towle 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Jackson
    • 1
  • Philip Towle
    • 2
  1. 1.University of RedlandsUSA
  2. 2.Centre of International StudiesCambridge UniversityUK

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