School Governance and School Choice 1900–1950

  • Jurgen Herbst


During the first half of the twentieth century the professionalization of American public education moved steadily ahead and made narrower the areas left for parental school choice and participation. Overall policy for public education was set in state legislatures and increasingly by the federal government. It was administered and supervised by educational professionals in state departments of public instruction and the federal Department of Education. These professionals were supplemented by state, county, and city superintendents, most of them trained in university departments of educational administration. In the decades after 1900, they brought a measure of uniform, countrywide administrative educational practice to the school districts of the United States.


Public School Private School School Choice Public Elementary School National Education Association 
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  1. 1.
    Raymond E. Callahan reports on Page 214 of his Education and the Cult of Efficiency: A Study of the Social Forces that have Shaped the Administration of the Public Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), that in the academic year 1909–1910 Teachers College awarded 73 graduate degrees in education that included 13 with professional diplomas in administration and supervision. In 1923–1924 that number had grown to 939 graduate degrees with 390 professional diplomas in administration and supervision.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Jurgen Herbst 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jurgen Herbst
    • 1
  1. 1.DurangoUSA

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