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School Governance and School Choice 1900–1950

  • Jurgen Herbst
Chapter
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Abstract

During the first half of the twentieth century the professionalization of American public education moved steadily ahead and made narrower the areas left for parental school choice and participation. Overall policy for public education was set in state legislatures and increasingly by the federal government. It was administered and supervised by educational professionals in state departments of public instruction and the federal Department of Education. These professionals were supplemented by state, county, and city superintendents, most of them trained in university departments of educational administration. In the decades after 1900, they brought a measure of uniform, countrywide administrative educational practice to the school districts of the United States.

Keywords

Public School Private School School Choice Public Elementary School National Education Association 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Raymond E. Callahan reports on Page 214 of his Education and the Cult of Efficiency: A Study of the Social Forces that have Shaped the Administration of the Public Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), that in the academic year 1909–1910 Teachers College awarded 73 graduate degrees in education that included 13 with professional diplomas in administration and supervision. In 1923–1924 that number had grown to 939 graduate degrees with 390 professional diplomas in administration and supervision.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    David Tyack and Elisabeth Hansot, Managers of Virtue: Public School Leadership in America, 1820–1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1951), p. 106.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    For the school-home relationship in the early twentieth century and the situation in Delaware see William W. Cutler III, Parents and Schools: The 150 Year Struggle for Control in American Education (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 8, 115–126.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    On this see William J. Reese, Power and the Promise of School Reform: Grassroots Movements During the Progressive Era (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986), pp. 46–50.Google Scholar
  5. 19.
    James Bryant Conant, The Child, The Parent, and the State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), p. 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 22.
    David L. Angus and Jeffrey E. Mirel, The Failed Promise of the American High School, 1890–1995 (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1999), p. 65.Google Scholar
  7. 24.
    James Bryant Conant, Slums and Suburbs (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), pp. 145–147.Google Scholar
  8. 28.
    Otto F. Kraushaar, American Nonpublic Schools: Patterns of Diversity (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972), p. 77.Google Scholar
  9. 56.
    See Jürgen Oelkers, “Origin and Development in Central Europe,” in Progressive Education Across the Continents, ed. Hermann Röhrs and Volker Lenhart (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1995), pp. 31–50.Google Scholar
  10. 60.
    Hanno Schmitt, “Zur Realität der Schulreform in der Weimarer Republik,” in Politische Reformpädagogik, ed. Tobias Rülcker and Jürgen Oelkers (Bern: Peter Lang, 1998), pp. 619–643.Google Scholar
  11. 62.
    See Hildegard Feidel-Mertz, ed., Schulen im Exil: Die verdrängte Pädagogik nach 1933 (Reinbeck bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1983), pp. 25–33.Google Scholar
  12. 65.
    See Hans-Georg Herrlitz, Wulf Hopf, and Hartmut Titze, Deutsche Schulgeschichte von 1800 bis zur Gegenwart: Eine Einführung (Weinheim and München: Juventa Verlag, 1993), p. 151.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jurgen Herbst 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jurgen Herbst
    • 1
  1. 1.DurangoUSA

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