Advertisement

The Question of Jihad

  • S. M. Farid Mirbagheri
Chapter
  • 206 Downloads
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)

Abstract

The term jihad comes from the word jahd, meaning to struggle and to strive. Its derivatives, but never the term jihad itself, have been mentioned about 40 times in the Quran, the holy book of Muslims. The terms mojahedoon and mujahedeen are the subject nouns of jihad, which have also been used in the contemporary world in Afghanistan and other places. There is, now, clearly a distinct military slant to jihad. Islamist fundamentalism appears to preach jihad as an armed struggle against those it considers the enemies of Islam.1 To be clear, there are two aspects to the concept of jihad: lesser (outward) jihad and greater (inner) jihad. Though they are interrelated, it is important to bear in mind the distinction between the two. The lesser jihad is defined by the Prophet himself.2 It reports on the material and physical activities that are directed towards a Godly cause. External battles, whether military or otherwise, fall into this category. The Ottoman Sultan’s proclamation of jihad against Britain, France and the Allies in World War I, was an instance of military/lesser jihad. The exhortation was a religio-political statement deriving its authority ultimately from sharia, the legal code of Islam, which has traditionally been the exclusive domain of jurisprudence. The political and military impact of lesser jihad is derived from its religious orientation, though the religious value of jihad is somewhat independent of its political weight. This may indicate the predominance of jurisprudence in Islamic sciences in recent history in this respect.

Keywords

Muslim Community Islamic State Subject Noun Muslim Scholar Islamic Jurisprudence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 4.
    Tariq Ramadan, The Messenger: The Meanings of the Life of Muhammad ( London: Allen Lane, Penguin Group, 2007 ), p. 99.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam ( Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1955 ), p. 18.Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    See Maulvi Chiragh Ali, A Critical Exposition of the Popular ‘Jihad’, (Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli–Jayyad Press, 1984 ), p. 138.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    See Oliver P. Richmond, Introduction, Peace in International Relations ( London and New York: Routledge, 2008 ), pp. 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 11.
    Reported in Bruce P. Lawrence, Shattering the Myth: Islam Beyond Violence ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 ), p. 182.Google Scholar
  6. 12.
    Reported in Glen E. Robinson, ‘Can Islamists Be Democrats? The Case of Jordan’, Middle East Journal 51(3), pp. 378–9 (Summer 1997).Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    T. P. Schwartz-Barcott, War, Terror and Peace in the Quran and in Islam Carlisle, (PA: Army War College Foundation Press, 2004), pp. 273–4.Google Scholar
  8. 15.
    Binyamin Abrahamov, Islamic Theology: Traditionalism and Rationalism (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), Appendix I, point 17, p. 55.Google Scholar
  9. 16.
    W. Montgomery Watt, Islamic Political Thought (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998 [1968]), p. 91.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    Abdolkarim Soroush, Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam translated and edited by Mahmoud and Ahmad Sadri (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 ), p. 27.Google Scholar
  11. 27.
    Muhammad Abdel Haleem, Understanding the Quran: Themes and Style ( London: I. B. Tauris, 1999 ), p. 63.Google Scholar
  12. 28.
    See Imam Mohammad Ghazzali, Kimiaye Sa’adat [Elixir of Prosperity/ Salvation], 3rd edn ( Tehran: Nash Publications, 2007 ).Google Scholar
  13. 29.
    Natana J. Delong-Bas, Wahhabi Islam, From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad (London: I. B. Tauris, 2004 ), pp. 201–2, n. 47.Google Scholar
  14. 38.
    See Abdulkarim Soroush, The Expansion of Prophetic Experience, translated by Nilou Mobasser (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009 ), pp. 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 43.
    Hadith reported in Muhammad Nasr ad-Din al-Albani, Al -Jami as-Saghir wa Ziadah (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1988), 2: 948, quoted in Tariq Ramadan, The Messenger , p. 102.Google Scholar
  16. 45.
    See J. S. McClelland, A History of Western Political Thought ( London and New York: Routledge, 1996 ), p. 24.Google Scholar
  17. 47.
    Quoted from Ali Shari’ati, Ma va Eqbal [ We and Iqbal ], Collected Works, Vol. V ( Tehran: Elham Publications, 1971 ), p. 247.Google Scholar
  18. 48.
    Leonard Lewisohn, Beyond Faith and Fidelity: The Sufi Poetry and Teachings of Mahmud Shabestari ( Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1995 ), p. 229.Google Scholar
  19. 49.
    Abolghasem Payande (ed.), Nahj-ol-Fesahe [The Way of Eloquence], 19th edn ( Tehran: Javidan Publication Organisation, 1985 ), p. 2059.Google Scholar
  20. 50.
    William Blake, Blake: Complete Writings , edited by G. Keynes( (Oxford University Press, 1972), pp. 96–7.Google Scholar
  21. 52.
    Mahmud Shabestari, Gulshan-i Raz [The Mystic Rose Garden], translated by E. H. Whinfield (Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1978 ), p. 78.Google Scholar
  22. 55.
    Ali Shari’ati, Niayesh [Prayers] (Aachen: The Office for Collecting and Publication of the Works of Martyred Brother Dr Ali Shari’at in Europe, 1979 ), p. 99.Google Scholar
  23. 58.
    Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars 4th edn (New York: Basic Books, 2006), p. x.Google Scholar
  24. 78.
    Arthur Goldschmidt Jr and Lawrence Davidson, A Concise History of the Middle East 8th edn (Oxford: Westview Press, 2006), p. 210. See also Montgomery Watt, op. cit., p. 19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© S. M. Farid Mirbagheri 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Farid Mirbagheri
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations