Advertisement

Varieties of Luck and Possible Worlds

  • James Kraft
Chapter
  • 69 Downloads

Abstract

Since it is so crucial for understanding knowledge to see that it is Incompatible with luck, let’s take a closer look at the luck element of Gettier and other cases. In essence when we say that someone was lucky In an action or in having a belief, what we mean is the following: the person gets the belief right, but easily could have gotten It wrong. Notice the word “could” In this commonsense understanding of luck. Does the “could” refer to anything in the actual, everyday world we experience? Not necessarily, because It refers to ways the person may have gotten the belief wrong, but didn’t necessarily.

Keywords

Actual World True Belief Error Possibility Lottery Paradox Nearby World 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Duncan Pritchard, “Virtue Epistemology and Epistemic Luck, Revisited,” Metaphilosophy 39, no. 1 (2008): 66–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duncan Pritchard, “Sensitivity, Safety, and Anti-Luck Epistemology,” in The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism, ed. John Greco (Oxford: Oxford, 2008), 437–55.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duncan Pritchard, Epistemic Luck (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jennifer Lackey, “What Luck is Not,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy (2008): 255–62.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Ernest Sosa, “How to Defeat Opposition to Moore,” Philosophical Perspectives 13 (1999): 141–53.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Robert Nozick, Philosophical Explanations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  7. Keith DeRose, “Solving the Skeptical Problem,” The Philosophical Review 104 (1995): 1–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    Stephen Hetherington, “Actually Knowing,” Philosophical Quarterly 48, no. 193 (1998): 453–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lars-Bo Gundersen, Dispositional Theories of Knowledge: A Defence of Aetiological Foundationalism (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2003), 2.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stephen Hetherington, “Is This a World Where Knowledge Has to Include Justification?,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (2007): 41–69, see page 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brent Madison, “Combating Anti Anti-Luck Epistemology,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89, no. 1 (2011): 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henry Kyburg, Probability and the Logic of Rational Belief (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1961).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    John Greco, “Worries about Pritchard’s Safety,” Synthese 158 (2007): 299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jonathan Vogel, “Speaking of Knowledge,” Nous 14 (2004): 501–9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robert Williams, “Chances, Counterfactuals, and Similarity,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77, no. 2 (2008): 385–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    John Hawthorne, Knowledge and Lotteries (Oxford University Press, 2005).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duncan Pritchard, “Epistemic Luck,” Journal of Philosophical research 29 (2004): 191–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duncan Pritchard, “Safety-Based Epistemology: Whither Now?,” Journal of Philosophical Research 34 (2009): 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 20.
    Martin Smith, “What Else Justification Could Be,” Nous 44, no. 1 (2010): 10–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 21.
    Lars Gundersen, “Outline of a New Semantics for Counterfactuals” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85, no. 1 (2004): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Robert Stalnaker, “A Theory of Conditionals,” in Studies in Logical Theory, ed. Nicholas Rescher, 98–112 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1968).Google Scholar
  22. David Lewis, Counterfactuals (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1973).Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    Jeffrey Rosenthal, Struck by Lightning: The Curious World of Probabilities (London: HarperCollins, 2005).Google Scholar
  24. Juan Comesana, “What Lottery Problem for Reliabilism,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (2009): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Keith DeRose, “Knowledge, Assertion and Lotteries,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (1996): 568–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jonathan Adler, “Reliabilist Justification (or Knowledge) As a Good Truth-Ratio,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (2005): 445–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Christoph Kelp, “Classical Invariantism and the Puzzle of Fallibilism,” The Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (2008): 221–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Christoph Kelp, “Pritchard on Knowledge, Safety, and Cognitive Achievements,” Journal of Philosophical Research 34 (2009): 51–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Christoph Kelp, “Knowledge and Safety” Journal of Philosophical Research (2009): 21–31.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Mark McEvoy, “Safety, the Lottery Puzzle, and Misprinted Lottery Results,” Journal of Philosophical Research 34 (2009): 47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mark McEvoy, “The Lottery Puzzle and Pritchard’s Safety Analysis of Knowledge,” Journal of Philosophical Research 34 (2009): 7–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 29.
    Mark Kaplan, “It’s Not What You Know that Counts,” Journal of Philosophy 82 (1985): 350–63,.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robert K. Shope, ed. The Analysis of Knowledge: A Decade of Research (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).Google Scholar
  34. 30.
    Jack S. Crumley, An Introduction to Epistemology, 2nd ed. (Buffalo, NY: Broadview Press, 2009), 54.Google Scholar
  35. Duncan Pritchard, “The Value of Knowledge,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/knowledge-value.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© James Kraft 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Kraft

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations