Advertisement

Introduction

Apartheid on a Black Isle
  • Dawne Y. Curry
Chapter
  • 63 Downloads

Abstract

In the 1950s, Richard Ngculu lived a relatively quiet life with his family in Alexandra, South Africa. Even though the apartheid government had designated families for removal, it spared the Ngculus the embarrassment, the shame, and the hassle of selling or renting their family home. In that space, Ngculu doted on his family, devoting all his attention to being a good husband and father. Ngculu was also an avid reader and a talented mechanic, who—by his own estimation— “performed miracles on some broken down jalopies.”1 He enjoyed plying his trade until the African National Congress (ANC) wooed him to join the organization and he forayed into a new “profession.”

Keywords

African National Congress Underground Movement Apartheid Regime Safe House Beer Hall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Richard Ngculu (pseudonym), interview, tape recording, Alexandra Township, June 11, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 6.
    Gregory Houston and Bernard Magubane, “The ANC Political Underground in the 1970s,” in The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 2, 1970–1980, South African Democracy Education Trust (Cape Town: Zebra Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  3. 7.
    Raymond Suttner, The ANC and the Underground (Auckland Park: Jacana Media, 2008).Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    Belinda Bozzoli, “Ritual and Transition,: The Truth Commission in Alexandra, Township, South Africa 1996.” University of the Witwatersrand Institute for the Advanced Social Research, Seminar Paper No. 435, 1998, 10–11, 17–18.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Belinda Bozzoli, Theatres of Struggle and the End of Apartheid (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    Raymond Suttner, The ANC and the Underground (Auckland Park: Jacana Media, 2008).Google Scholar
  7. 12.
    Gregory Houston and Bernard Magubane, “The ANC Political Underground in the 1970s,” in The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Volume 2, 1970–1980, South African Democracy Education Trust (Cape Town: Zebra Press, 2004), 402.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Alfred Stadler, “A Long Way to Walk: Bus Boycotts in Alexandra, 1940–1945,” in Phil Bonner (ed). Working Papers in Southern African Studies (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1981) 228–257.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    See John Nauright, “An Experiment in Native Self-Government: The Alexandra Health Committee, the State and Local Politics,” South African Historical Journal, 43 (2001): 223–243,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. David Duncan, “Liberals and Local Administration in South Africa: Alfred Hoernle and the Alexandra Health Committee, 1933–1943,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 23, 3 (1990): 475–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 16.
    See Philip Bonner and Noor Nieftagodien, Alexandra: A History (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 2008),Google Scholar
  12. Alan Brooks and Jeremy Brickhill, Whirlwind before the Storm: The Origins and Development of the Uprising in Soweto and the Rest of South Africa from June to December 1976 (London: International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, 1980),Google Scholar
  13. Pat Hopkins and Helen Grange, The Rocky Rioter Teargas Show: The Inside Story of the 1976 Soweto Uprising (Cape Town: Zebra, 2001).Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    See Justine Lucas, “Space, Domesticity and People’s Power: Civic Organisations in Alexandra in the 1990s,” African Studies, 54, 1 (1995): 89–113,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bozzoli Theatres of Struggle and the End of Apartheid (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    Bradley Skelcher, “Apartheid and the Removal of Black Spots from Lake Bhangazi in KwaZulu/Natal South Africa,” Journal of Black Studies, 33, 6 (July 2003): 761–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 21.
    J. Dunston, Alexandra, I Love You (Alexandra: Alexandra Liaison Committee, 1998), 39.Google Scholar
  18. 35.
    Mongane Wally Serote, “Post-Sharpeville Poetry: A Poet’s View,” Third World Quarterly, 10, 4 (1988): 1600–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 36.
    Dawne Y. Curry, “Community, Culture and Resistance in Alexandria, South Africa 1912–1985,” Phd Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, 2006, 137.Google Scholar
  20. 45.
    Helena Pohlandt-McCormick, “I Saw a Nightmare,” Memory and Violence, Chapter 6, in ‘I Saw a Nightmare’: “Doing Violence to Memory, the Soweto Uprising, June 16, 1976” (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), HEB http://www.gutenberg-e.org/pohlandt-mccormick/ date assessed March 18, 2012.Google Scholar
  21. 48.
    Bozzoli Theatres of Struggle and the End of Apartheid (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2004), 206–232. In the chapter entitled “Nationalism and Theatricality,” Bozzoli discusses how funerals were opportunities to mobilize and create a national identity.Google Scholar
  22. 53.
    Dawne Y. Curry, “When Apartheid Interfered with Funerals: We Still Found Ways to Grieve in Alexandra, South Africa,” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences: 22, 2 (2007): 245–252.Google Scholar
  23. 55.
    David B. Coplan, In Township Tonight!: South Africa’s Black City Music and Theatre (London: Longman, 1985), 165.Google Scholar
  24. 57.
    See Kenneth Margo, Underground Encounters: True Tales of an ANC Operative’s Long Walk to Freedom, Kindle edition, Padraig O’Malley, Shades of Difference: Mac Maharaj and the Struggle for South Africa (New York: Penguin, 2008),Google Scholar
  25. Elias Masilela, Number 43 Trelawney Park: Kwa Magogo (Cape Town: New Africa Books, 2011).Google Scholar
  26. 58.
    Raymond Suttner, The ANC and the Underground (Auckland Park: Jacana Media, 2008).Google Scholar
  27. 59.
    See Raymond Suttner, The ANC and the Underground (Auckland Park: Jacana Media, 2008),Google Scholar
  28. Philip Noyce, director. Catch a Fire Jacklyn Cock, Colonels and Cadres: War and Gender in South Africa (Cape Town: Oxford, 1991),Google Scholar
  29. Robin Curnow, “Interview: Thandi Modise: A Woman at War,” Agenda 43 (2000): 36–40.Google Scholar
  30. 62.
    See Jacklyn Cock, Colonels and Cadres: War and Gender in South Africa (Cape Town: Oxford, 1991),Google Scholar
  31. Robin Curnow, “Interview: Thandi Modise: A Woman at War,” Agenda 43 (2000): 36–40., Amandla!. A Revolution in Four Part Harmony. 108 min. Lions Gate Entertainment. United States, 2002. DVD.Google Scholar
  32. 67.
    See Jacklyn Cock, Colonels and Cadres War and Gender in South Africa (Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1991),Google Scholar
  33. Robyn Curnow, interview, “Thandi Modise: A Woman at War,” Agenda (2000), pp. 36–40,Google Scholar
  34. Elaine Unterhalter, “The Work of the Nation: Heroic Masculinity in South African Autobiographical Writing of the Anti-Apartheid Struggle,” The European Journal of Development Research, 12, 2 (2000): 167–172,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Natasha Erlank, “Gender and Masculinity in South African Nationalist Discourse 1912–1950,” Feminist Studies 29 (2003): 653–671.Google Scholar
  36. 69.
    Raymond Suttner, The ANC Underground in South Africa (Auckland Park, Jacana Media Press, 2008), 87.Google Scholar
  37. 72.
    Mongane Wally Serote, To Every Birth its Blood (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1997).Google Scholar
  38. 74.
    Dawne Y. Curry, “An African American Confronts and Constructs: The Social Construction of Race in Post Apartheid South Africa,” Safundi, 22 (2006): 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 75.
    See Gavin Lewis, Between the Wire and the Wall: A History of South African Coloured Politics (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987),Google Scholar
  40. Ian Goldin, Making Race: The Politics of Economics and Coloured Identity (London: Longman, 1987),Google Scholar
  41. and Zimitri Erasmus, Coloured by History, Shaped by Place: New Perspectives on Coloured Identities in Cape Town (Cape Town: Kwela, 2001).Google Scholar
  42. 76.
    During the 1980s “ungovernability” campaign, residents led by Moses Mayekiso wanted to paralyze the government economically, so they ordered people not to pay utilities and to erect homes on any vacant space. See Mzwanele Mayekiso, Township Politics: Civic Struggles for a New South Africa (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1996), Belinda Bozzoli, “From Governability to Ungovernability: Race, Class and Authority South Africa’s Black Cities,” University of the Witwatersrand, Institute for Advanced Social Research, no. 394, 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 77.
    Philip Bonner and Noor Nieftagodien, Alexandra: A History (Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2008), 18–25.Google Scholar
  44. 78.
    Luli Callinicos, Gold and Workers: a People’s History of South Africa, Volume 1 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985), 42.Google Scholar
  45. 79.
    Belinda Bozzoli, “Interviewing the Women of Phokeng,” in Robert Perks and Alistair Thomson (eds). The Oral History Reader (New York: Routledge, 1998), 145–156. Even when they knew the language or grew up in the same area, age and education often distanced them from the informants they chose to record. When South African born Mmantho Nkotsoe conducted interviews for Belinda Bozzoli’s work, she stood at the crossroads between familiarity and discovery, as she knew the ins and outs of this village near her birthplace in the former Bantustan homeland, Bophuthatswana, lying near Rustenburg. Nkotsoe spoke the same indigenous language, was reared in the same Tswana culture, and with her familiarity of the terrain, she understood the landscape’s complexity, and the people it nourished and resuscitated. Despite having this knowledge and intimacy, Nkotsoe’s education and age also made her an outsider to the mothers, activists, daughters, nieces, grandmothers, and wives that she interviewed. She was after all a minor, and in true African custom, her interviewees exercised reticence when discussing childbirth and other issues deemed suitable only for adults.Google Scholar
  46. 82.
    John Nauright, “I am With You as Never Before”: Women in Urban Protest Movements, Alexandra Township, South Africa, 1912–1945, in Kathleen Sheldon (ed) Courtyards, Markets, City Streets: Urban Women in Africa, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996), 260–262.Google Scholar
  47. 83.
    Philip Bonner and Noor Nieftagodien, Alexandra: A History (Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand Press, 2008, 390.Google Scholar
  48. 84.
    James Giblin, “Passages in a Struggle Over the Past: Stories of Maji Maji in Njombe, Tanzania,” in Toyin Falola and Christian Jennings (eds). Sources and Methods in African History: Spoken, Written, Unearthed (Rochester: University of Rochester, 2003), 296–297.Google Scholar
  49. 98.
    Dan Mokoyane, Lessons of Azikwelwa (Johannesburg: Nakong Ya Rena, 1994), 15–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dawne Y. Curry 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawne Y. Curry

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations