After the MAINE

  • A. J. Angulo


The fight didn’t last long. By all accounts, in fact, it was a single punch that finished it. Alexis Frye had decked the quartermaster of the USS Sedgwick , crystallizing Frye’s reputation as both a hero and a villain.1


Educational Reform Normal School School Reform Military Government Military Occupation 
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  1. 1.
    “Frye’s Fist,” Boston Daily Globe , July 3, 1900. The literature on education during the US occupation in Cuba is thin. Edward Douglass Fitchen’s “Alexis Everett Frye and the Organization of Cuban Education, 1899–1901” (PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1970), hereafter cited as EDF , is perhaps the best work on the topic. Other relevant works by Fitchen include the following: “The Cuban Teachers and Harvard, 1900: A Unique Experiment in Inter-American Cultural Exchange,” Horizontes 26 (1973), 61–71; and “Alexis E. Frye and Cuban Education, 1898–1902,” Revista Interamericana 2 (1972), 123–149.Google Scholar
  2. See also Carlos Rodriguez-Fraticelli, “Education, Politics, and Imperialism: The Reorganization of the Cuban Public Elementary School System during the First American Occupation, 1899–1902” (PhD diss., University of California, San Diego, 1984), hereafter cited as CRF ;Google Scholar
  3. Jack McCallum, Leonard Wood: Rough Rider, Surgeon, Architect of American Imperialism (New York: New York University Press, 2005);Google Scholar
  4. Erwin H. Epstein, “The Peril of Paternalism: The Imposition of Education on Cuba by the United States,” American Journal of Education 96 (November 1987), 1–23;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. James H. Hitchman, Leonard Wood and Cuban Independence, 1898–1902 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. For starters on the broader historiography of Cuba and the War of 1898, see Louis A. Perez, Jr.’s Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); and The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1998);Google Scholar
  7. and Richard Gott, Cuba: A New History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    See Philip S. Foner, A History of Cuba and Its Relations with the United States (2 vols, New York: International Publishers, 1963);Google Scholar
  9. for a long view of US interventions abroad, see Steven Kinzer, Overthrow: America’s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2007);Google Scholar
  10. see also Michael Hunt, The American Ascendancy: How the United States Gained and Wielded Global Dominance (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007) for a discussion of the “nineteenth-century foundations” of the United States’ expansionist efforts.Google Scholar
  11. 6.
    See John Offner, An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain Over Cuba, 1895–1898 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  12. 7.
    Textile Record, March 1898; Boot and Shoe Recorder , March 30, 1898, cited in Daniel Schirmer, Republic or Empire: American Resistance to the Philippines War (Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Co., 1972), 52;Google Scholar
  13. Lodge on military imperial expansion, cited in Julius Pratt, Expansionist of 1898: The Acquisition of Hawaii and the Spanish Islands (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith Co., 1959), 207;Google Scholar
  14. see also CRF , 14; Evan Thomas, The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898 (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010);Google Scholar
  15. Alfred W. McCoy and Francisco A Scarano, eds., Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009).Google Scholar
  16. 8.
    For the Teller Amendment, see Benjamin Beede, The War of 1898 and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Press, 1994), 538.Google Scholar
  17. 9.
    John Brooke, Civil Report of Major General John R. Brooke, U. S. Army, Military Governor Island of Cuba (Havana, 1899).Google Scholar
  18. 10.
    “Report of Brigadier-General William Ludlow,” in John Brooke, Annual Report of Major General John R. Brooke (Havana, 1899), 32; EDF , 40; McCallum, Leonard Wood , 111–146.Google Scholar
  19. 12.
    William T. Harris, “An Educational Policy for Our New Possessions,” Educational Review 18 (September 1899), 108–109.Google Scholar
  20. 13.
    William T. Harris, “An Educational Policy for Our New Possessions,” Educational Review 18 (September 1899), 114–115.Google Scholar
  21. For background on Root’s expansionist views, see Warren Zimmerman, First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2002), 123–148, 233–267;Google Scholar
  22. Joyce M. Gayden, “The Latin American Policy of Elihu Root, 1899–1909” (MA thesis, University of South Carolina, 1954).Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    Alexis E. Frye, Elements of Geography (Boston: Ginn and Co, 1898); “Bids for Supplying the Schools,” Havana Journal , December 2, 1899, cited in EDF , 112–113;Google Scholar
  24. Carlos Genova de Zayas, Apuntes Sobre la Fundacion de la Escuela Cubana (Havana, 1958), 48, 125, cited in CRF , 173; Alexis E. Frye, “First Annual Report of the Superintendent of Schools of Cuba for the Year Ending June 30, 1900,” Records of the Military Government of Cuba, Record Group 140, Decimal File 4963, National Archives, cited in EDF , 95, 141; “Los Libros de Texto,” La Lucha , November 1,Google Scholar
  25. 1899.
    1899, cited in CRF , 146; “Education for Cuba,” Havana Herald , October 19, 1899, cited in CRF , 132.Google Scholar
  26. 32.
    Julia Martinez, “The Cuban Teachers at Cambridge,” The Independent 52 (August 1900), cited in EDF , 185.Google Scholar
  27. 33.
    David F. Healy, The United States in Cuba, 1898–1902: Generals, Politicians, and the Search for Policy (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963), 163.Google Scholar
  28. 39.
    See, Louis A. Perez, Jr.’s Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006);Google Scholar
  29. Richard Gott, Cuba: A New History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004).Google Scholar

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© A. J. Angulo 2012

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