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By Executive Order

  • A. J. Angulo
Chapter
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Abstract

Unlike Haiti, there were no bloody riots or political assassinations offering a prelude to US military action in the Dominican Republic in 1916. Unlike Haiti, Wilson had far less claim to a “humane duty” to intervene next door.1

Keywords

Dominican Republic Executive Order Military Government Military Occupation Tariff Policy 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    The story of America’s first occupation of the Dominican Republic has received the most extensive treatment in Bruce Calder’s Impact of Intervention: The Dominican Republic during the U.S. Occupation of 1916–1924 (rev. ed., Princeton: Markus Wiener, 2006).Google Scholar
  2. Education occupies a very small portion (approximately ten pages) of his overall analysis. Other literature on the Dominican Republic during US occupation is as follows: Thomas Snowden, Santo Domingo, Its Past and Its Present (Santo Domingo City: n.p., 1920);Google Scholar
  3. Melvin M. Knight, The Americans in Santo Domingo (New York: Vanguard Press, 1928);Google Scholar
  4. Sumner Welles, Naboth’s Vineyard: The Dominican Republic, 1844–1924 (2 vols, New York: Payson and Clarke, 1928);Google Scholar
  5. Howard J. Wiarda, The Dominican Republic: Nation in Transition (New York: Praeger 1969);Google Scholar
  6. Richard Millett and G. Dale Gaddy, “Administering the Protectorates: The U.S. Occupation of Haiti and the Dominican Republic,” Revista Interamericana 6 (1976), 383–402;Google Scholar
  7. Stephen M. Fuller and Graham A Cosmas, Marines in the Dominican Republic, 1916–1924 (Washington, DC: US Marine Corps., 1973);Google Scholar
  8. Ian Bell, The Dominican Republic (Boulder: Westview Press, 1981);Google Scholar
  9. Richard Lee Turtis, Foundations of Despotism: Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003);Google Scholar
  10. Frank Moya Pons, The Dominican Republic: A National History (rev. ed., Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2010).Google Scholar
  11. 7.
    Annual Report of the Military Government of Santo Domingo, from date of Proclamation, November 29, 1916 to June 30, 1917 (Records of the State Department Relating to Internal Affairs of the Dominican Republic, 1910–1929, National Archives, Record Group 59, Decimal File 839 [hereafter cited as, USNA RG 59, DF 839]), 12. Julian Go’s American Empire and the Politics of Meaning: Elite Political Cultures in the Philippines and Puerto Rico during U.S. Colonialism (Durham: Duke University Press, 2008) describes the drive for legitimacy as the attempt by occupation officials to ensure efficient rule by organizing “colonialism according to perceived local demands local demands and interests” (34).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    “Brigadier General Rufus H. Lane, USMC (Deceased),” Biographical File, US Marine Corps History Division, Quantico, VA; Jack Shulimson, “Daniel Pratt Mannix and the Establishment of the Marine Corps School of Application, 1889–1894,” The Journal of Military History 55 (October 1991), 484; Calder, Impact of Intervention , 36–37; Secretary of Justice and Public Education, Executive Order No. 4 , in Coleccion de Ordenes , 9–10; Secretary of Justice and Public Education, Executive Order No. 13, in Coleccion de Ordenes , 21–24; Military Government of Santo Domingo, Executive Order No. 145 (USNA RG 59, DF 839).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 16.
    Edward Douglass Fitchen, “Alexis E. Frye and Cuban Education, 1898–1902,” Revista Interamericana 2 (1972), 123–149;Google Scholar
  14. Glenn Anthony May, Social Engineering in the Philippines: The Aims, Execution, and Impact of American Colonial Policy, 1900–1913 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1980);Google Scholar
  15. Aida Negron De Montilla, Americanization in Puerto Rico and the Public School System, 1900–1930 (Rio Pierdras: University of Puerto Rico, 1975);Google Scholar
  16. Leon D. Pamphile, Clash of Cultures: America’s Educational Strategies in Occupied Haiti, 1915–1934 (Lanham: University Press of America, 2008).Google Scholar
  17. Jonathan Zimmerman, Innocents Abroad: American Teachers in the American Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006); Quarterly Report of the Military Government of Santo Domingo, from January 1, 1918 to March 31, 1918 (USNA RG 59, DF 839), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 21.
    Military Government of Santo Domingo, Executive Order No. 145 (USNA RG 59, DF 839); see Gaceta Oficial (April 17, 1918), 26–40; Quarterly Report of the Military Government of Santo Domingo, from January 1, 1918 to March 31, 1918 (USNA RG 59, DF 839), 3; for a description of the push for technical education in Haiti, see Leon D. Pamphile’s Clash of Cultures: America’s Educational Strategies in Occupied Haiti, 1915–1934 (Lanham: University Press of America, 2008). Military Government of Santo Domingo, Executive Order No. 145 (USNA RG 59, DF 839); my translation from Gaceta Oficial (April 17, 1918), 7–26, 41. Much like the Commission on Education, the Consejo Nacional de Educacion could also be understood as an example of what Go’s American Empire describes as “tutelary colonialism” because of the political education the Consejo offered Dominican elites.Google Scholar
  19. 39.
    James Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. more recent examples of Anderson’s notion of double taxation discussed in the following: Julian Savage Carter, “Cultural Capital and African American Agency: The Economic Struggle for Effective Education for African Americans in Franklin, Tennessee, 1890–1967,” The Journal of African American History 87 (2002), 206–235;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kara Miles Turner, “‘Getting It Straight’: Southern Black School Patrons and the Struggle for Equal Education in the Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Eras,” The Journal of Negro Education 72 (Spring 2003), 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© A. J. Angulo 2012

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