Greatest Generation

  • A. J. Angulo


Harry Truman gave Douglas MacArthur explicit instructions when it came to the US occupation of Japan. He wanted the general to assume the role of Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and, in this role, he wanted MacArthur to take complete control of the country. “The authority of the Emperor and the Japanese Government,” Truman stated flatly, “is subordinate to you as Supreme Commander … Since your authority is supreme, you will not entertain any question on the part of the Japanese as to its scope.” So began the occupation that lasted from 1945 to 1952.1


Japanese People Governing Board School Governance Japanese School Japanese Education 
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  1. 1.
    Harry Truman cited in Masako Shibata, Japan and Germany under the U.S. Occupation: A Comparative Analysis of the Post-War Education Reform (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2005), 60;Google Scholar
  2. the literature on occupied Japan includes the following: Toshino Nishi, Unconditional Democracy: Education and Politics in Occupied Japan, 1945–1952 (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1982);Google Scholar
  3. Joseph Trainor, Educational Reform in Occupied Japan: Trainor’s Memoir (Tokyo: Meiji University Press, 1983);Google Scholar
  4. Robert Wolfe, ed., Americans as Proconsuls: United States Military Government in Germany and Japan, 1944–1952 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984);Google Scholar
  5. Gary Hoichi Tsuchimochi, Educational Reform in Postwar Japan: The 1946 U.S. Education Mission (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1993);Google Scholar
  6. Bernd Martin, Japan and Germany in the Modern World (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 1995);Google Scholar
  7. Ray A. Moore and Donald L. Robinson, Partners for Democracy: Crafting the New Japanese State Under MacArthur (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eiji Takemae, The Allied Occupation of Japan (New York: Continuum, 2002);Google Scholar
  9. Hans Martin Kramer, “Reforms of their Own: The Japanese Resistance to Changes in Higher Education Administration under the U.S. American Occupation, 1945–1952,” Paedagogica Historica 43 (June 2007), 327–345;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kentaro Ohkura and Masako Shibata, “Demystifying the Divine State and Rewriting Identity in the U.S. Occupation of Japan,” in Noah W. Sobe, American Post-Conflict Educational Reform: From the Spanish-American War to Iraq (New York: Palgrave, 2009), 129–145;Google Scholar
  11. Ruriko Kumano, “Anticommunism and Academic Freedom: Walter C. Eells and the ‘Red Purge’ in Occupied Japan,” History of Education Quarterly 50 (November 2010), 513–537; Masako Shibata’s Japan and Germany has been particularly useful and is hereafter cited as MS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© A. J. Angulo 2012

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  • A. J. Angulo

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