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President Restrained: Effects of Parliamentary Rule and Coalition Government on Indonesia’s Presidentialism

  • Koichi Kawamura
Chapter

Abstract

The transition to democracy in Indonesia was completed in 2004, following four revisions of the 1945 Constitution during the years 1999–2002, and the first-ever direct presidential election was held in 2004. In the course of institutional reforms, the political system was completely revised and, in particular, a balance of power among the executive, legislative and judicial branches was carefully designed and implemented so as to prevent the re-establishment of an authoritarian regime. This chapter analyses the newly reformed presidential system in Indonesia. Is the Indonesian political system executive-heavy or legislative-heavy? Is the Indonesian president strong or weak? Simple though they may seem, these questions cannot be answered easily. Some scholars argue that the Indonesian political system is legislative-heavy since the president is often frustrated in policy-making by an assertive parliament, which has gained power under the democratic reforms. Others argue that the power of the president as head of state is such that the system may still be described as ‘executive-heavy’. However, these arguments lack an empirical base. Research that clearly defines what constitutes the strength (or the weakness) of the Indonesian president has been seldom attempted. By following an empirical approach, this study will attempt to make good this deficiency.

Keywords

Presidential Election Coalition Government Legislative Activity Constitutional Amendment Coalition Partner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Koichi Kawamura 2013

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  • Koichi Kawamura

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